In Search of the Lost Testament of Alexander the Great
Presenting his extensive research into the narrative sources, Grant challenges the ‘standard model’ by which historians assume that Alexander the Great died intestate. He argues that a surviving document, usually dismissed as fiction, preserves a version of the Macedonian leader’s will. This leads him to propose a new interpretation of Alexander’s vision and the wars of succession in which his generals vied for control of the vast empire.
The World of King Arthur
The myth of Camelot has been one of the most influential in the western tradition, with Arthur acting as a symbol of Christian rulership, national monarchy and romantic nostalgia. This illustrated survey of its long cultural history begins with the background of post-Roman Britain and follows the development of stories about Arthur and his knights, from medieval art and literature to Wagnerian opera and comic books.
A Brief History of
The intricate artwork and vibrant mythology of the Celts make their culture a source of particular fascination, which continues to be fuelled by new archaeological discoveries. This overview of ancient Europe discusses the Celts' mysterious origins, their complex society and their vigorous survival even after conquest by the Romans. Previously published as The Ancient World of the Celts (1998).
What the Romans Can Tell us About Old Age & Death
How did the Romans confront mortality in a world where only eight per cent of the population lived past 60 and medicine offered little defence against disease? This surprisingly entertaining discussion of the subject uses the philosophical reflections of elite authors and the evidence from ordinary Romans’ epitaphs to explore their attitudes to youth and ageing, and their beliefs about fate, death and the afterlife.
The Romans Who Shaped Britain
This vividly drawn history of Britannia puts the people of the province ‘back at the heart of the story’. Combining evidence from ancient texts and modern archaeology, the authors reassess familiar rulers and rebels, such as Claudius and Hadrian, Boudicca and Caratacus. They also discuss the influential roles played by many lesser-known figures and stress the importance of considering the actions of both Romans and Britons within the changing political and economic contexts of the wider empire.
A Year in the Life of Ancient Egypt
What would it have been like to live in Ancient Egypt? In this book one of the world’s most acclaimed Egyptologists imagines a year in the life of a government official and his family. Organized according to the three agricultural seasons that structured Egyptian lives – inundation, planting and harvesting – the family’s story illustrates aspects of their everyday lives and customs, their experience of the educational, medical and legal professions and their preparations for the afterlife.
The World of Cartimandua
During the first decades of Britain’s occupation by the Romans, Cartimandua was queen of the huge northern territory of the Brigantes. Combining the words of Roman authors with the evidence of hillforts and Celtic arts and artefacts, this reconstruction of her life examines how she cooperated with the invaders to ensure her tribe prospered, why Roman society viewed her as a shameless adulterer and whether she was a more important figure than the better-remembered Boudica.
Plato's Alarm Clock
And Other Amazing Ancient Inventions
From underwater breathing equipment (as described by Aristotle) to star charts (drawn on the walls of the Lescaux caves, 33,000–10,000 years ago), James Russell describes the inventions of ancient times. There are chapters on everyday life, with items as diverse as alarm clocks, make-up, games and chewing gum; mechanical and industrial technology, including the spoked wheel and movable type; military inventions; medical breakthroughs; scientific advances; and mysterious lost inventions such as Greek fire, Maya blue and the Baghdad battery.
Everyday Life in Hadrian's Britain
With characters from across the social strata, from high-born ladies to farmers' daughters, archaeologist Allason-Jones recreates the lives, habits and thoughts of women in Britain during Roman occupation through the story of Senovara, the wife of a former legionary. The detailed narrative reveals the nature of their home lives, health, religion, dress and jewellery and this revised edition includes fresh insights provided by the latest archaeological discoveries, including burials, tombstones and curse tablets.
For more than 3,000 years Egypt was ruled by the pharaohs, whose foremost duty was the maintenance of natural harmony through communication with the gods. Illustrated with their depictions in sculpture and featuring texts from inscriptions and papyri, this guide sets out each dynasty, from early times to the death of Cleopatra. It highlights the achievements of the most significant rulers, including the great pyramid-builder Khufu, the female pharaoh Hatshepsut, ‘heretic’ Akhenaten and boy-king Tutankhamen.
In Search of Ancient North Africa
A History in Six Lives
Informed by the author’s long experience of travel in North Africa, this ‘journey into a landscape of ruins’ is structured around the lives of six much-mythologized figures who represent the region’s rich classical culture: the refugee Queen Dido, the generals Hannibal and Masinissa, King Juba II, Septimus Severus and Augustine the intellectual careerist. Rogerson argues that the choices each made about cultural assimilation and resistance to Rome resemble those still faced by their modern descendants.
Rome Seizes the Trident
The Defeat of Carthaginian Seapower and the Forging of the Roman Empire
In 264 BCE, when the Romans first went to war with Carthage, they had no navy, relying instead on ships from South Italian cities. However, when the Punic Wars ended more than a century later, Rome had developed a powerful fleet, which would prove vital for imperial expansion. DeSantis traces the growth of this naval supremacy and discusses the tactics that made it possible, such as the boarding-bridge by which the superior Roman infantry simply walked onto the enemy’s decks.
The Roman Family in the Empire
Rome, Italy, and Beyond
These ten papers examine the forms taken by families in territories conquered by the Romans, with a particular focus on the ways in which local traditions and the process of ‘Romanization’ combined to shape social attitudes in provinces from Lusitania to Judaea. The authors analyse evidence from a wide range of sources, including the speeches of Cicero, Justinian’s law code, archival documents from Egypt and the inscriptions and reliefs carved on funerary monuments.
The Fall of the Ancient Maya
Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse
While the downfall of the Maya has variously been attributed to earthquake, famine, plague and war, this account of their demise, which critically evaluates many of the proposed causes, asks not only how the civilization collapsed, but what collapsed. David Webster draws upon recent archaeological research and discoveries at sites including Copán, Tikal and Piedras Negras to examine the history and culture of the Maya, and to analyse the complex factors behind their decline. Slightly off-mint.
Warrior and King
King Arthur, long regarded as the leader of oppressed Britons against invading Saxon hordes, emerges from this fresh analysis as a boastful Irish raider who used his battles to carve out a kingdom in western Britain. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Carleton combines evidence from archaeology, literature and the study of place names to reconstruct the career of the 6th-century ruler, who he suggests was a pagan warlord, and to propose a new location for the renowned Battle of Badon.
Warfare in Northern Europe Before the Romans
Evidence from Archaeology
Roman propaganda helped to create the common perception of Northern Europe’s early warriors as disorganized, uncultured savages. However, as this book shows, there is abundant evidence for the use of innovative technologies and sophisticated strategic thinking in societies across the region. To shed light on the centuries before written records, Wileman analyses such monuments as the Bronze Age hillforts at Maiden Castle in Dorset and Alesia in France together with archaeological finds, from ancient weapons to rock art depicting scenes of battle.
The Roman Fighter's Unofficial Manual
‘Having people fight and kill each other for entertainment requires some pretty flexible moral gymnastics’, writes Philip Matyszak. Here, he introduces the world of the gladiator, from entering the ludus (gladiator school) to the surprisingly wide range of career options if (a rather big ‘if’) you survive combat in the arena. The ‘manual’ includes quotes from the ancient authorities, a survey of the Empire’s best arenas and photographs of modern, reconstructed gladiators.
In the Light of Amarna
100 Years of the Nefertiti Discovery
Described by its excavator as ‘the epitome of serenity and symmetry’, the brightly coloured plaster bust of Queen Nefertiti from Tell el-Amarna is one of the most famous examples of Egyptian art. These 29 essays set Nefertiti within the historical context of the Amarna period, assess the bust’s cultural impact in the 20th century and describe other artefacts found in the same location. More than 200 items are illustrated, including many unfinished carvings that offer glimpses into an ancient sculptor’s workshop.
Judaea and Rome in Coins 65 BCE-135 CE
Papers Presented at the International Conference Hosted by Spink, 13th-14th September 2010
This volume comprises 14 papers presented at a 2010 conference on recent advances in numismatic scholarship relating to the period from the conquest of Judaea to the last major Jewish uprising against Roman rule. The contributors draw on evidence from many new coin finds in the region to shed light on such subjects as the Roman influence on local coinage, Hadrian’s characterization as a second Nero and the use of Jewish emblems and Hebrew slogans.
When in Rome
Social Life in Ancient Rome
With hundreds of excerpts from contemporary sources, this survey of Roman social history features the words of elite male authors alongside evidence from correspondence, inscriptions, graffiti and curse tablets that record the voices of women, and those from lower classes. Organized thematically, the book covers topics including family life, food and medicine, but also deals with issues less often addressed in modern accounts of ancient Rome, such as domestic abuse, disability and female genital mutilation.
The Rise of Athens
The Story of the World's Greatest Civilization
Classical Athens, a community of just 200,000 citizens, not only gave birth to some of antiquity's greatest geniuses but also created the world's first democracy, raising political issues that remain relevant today. Complementing his account of The Rise of Rome, Everitt surveys the Athenian achievement, from the early centuries of kings and tyrants, through the democratic revolution and the city's intellectual and artistic flowering in the age of Socrates and Pericles, to its decline with the growth of Macedon.
Egyptology's Greatest Discovery
In 1922, when Howard Carter discovered Tutankhamun’s intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings, the world looked on with a fascination that has lasted ever since. After setting the boy king’s short life in its historical context, this volume tells the story of the expedition, featuring photographs of the tomb’s excavation and a selection of Carter’s detailed drawings and journals, as well as presenting some of the 5,398 well-preserved objects that were found buried with the pharaoh.
Fact and Fiction
The intelligent, politically astute Cleopatra captivated both Caesar and Antony, two of the most powerful Romans of her age, and continues to fascinate us today. Watterson describes the events of the Egyptian queen’s life, examines how she came to symbolize the danger of female influence to Rome’s safety and traces the development of the Cleopatra legend in art and in drama for stage and screen. The book’s appendices present extensive excerpts from ancient sources.
A Civilization and its Writing
Most of the glyphs carved on the stone monuments of the ancient Maya civilization have now been deciphered. This handbook presents around 200 of the script’s symbolic characters, each with an interpretation of the concept that it expresses. The glyphs are arranged thematically to show what the Maya’s written records reveal about their lives and beliefs, their vigesimal number system and the complex organization of their solar and ritual calendars.
William Boyd Dawkins and the Victorian Science of Cave Hunting
Three Men in a Cavern
Among the first ‘cave hunters’ to work within a scientific framework and recognize the long evolutionary context for humans and animals, William Boyd Dawkins (1837–1929) was a renowned, yet controversial geologist, palaeontologist and archaeologist. Mark White sets out to rekindle interest in Dawkins, tracing his life and career from ‘boyhood to burial’, with accounts of his work at Wookey Hole, the Manchester museum, the 1874 Channel tunnel project and ‘one of Victorian archaeology’s darkest hours’, the Creswell Crags excavations of 1875–79.
Gifts for the Gods
Ancient Egyptian Animal Mummies and the British
Cats, birds and crocodiles are among the animals mummified in quantity by the ancient Egyptians and deposited as votive offerings. With contributions from 19 experts, this collection of illustrated essays details animals’ role in Egyptian religion and traces both the British fascination with such artefacts and the recent development of innovative techniques for studying them.
Ancient Churches of Ethiopia
Christianity was formally acknowledged by the Aksumite kings in the mid-4th century, making Ethiopia the second country in the world to adopt the new faith. Integrating historical, archaeological and artistic evidence, this book focuses on Ethiopian churches, both conventional buildings and those hewn from solid rock, to offer a fresh interpretation of the origins and exceptional continuity of the country’s Christian civilization.
Alexander the Great
Themes and Issues
Recent scholarship has challenged Alexander’s epithet ‘Great’, judging his conquests destructive rather than, as earlier historians believed, a civilizing force. This study examines Alexander’s life and career through the major issues surrounding his reign and legacy. In chapters on his Macedonian background, the legacy of Philip II, deification, the administration of an empire, and Asia, Anson sets out the major academic positions, evaluates the historical evidence and brings a new clarity to the history of Alexander.
Women in Ancient Greece
Seclusion, Exclusion, or Illusion?
Most histories of Ancient Greece focus on male protagonists, implying that women were a secluded, excluded part of society. Paul Chrystal questions this assumption, investigating the lives of Ancient Greek women writers, philosophers, artists and scientists, and their experiences of love, marriage, religion and death. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod and others, he demonstrates that women’s roles were far more nuanced and complex than previously portrayed.
The Life and Wars of Rome's Greatest Enemy
The Carthaginian general Hannibal (247–183 BCE) won an enduring place in the popular imagination through his audacious expedition across the Alps with a contingent of elephants. But what were his motivations and why did his long campaign against Rome end in tragic failure? Combining evidence from ancient sources with his own experience of Hannibal-related sites, Prevas analyses the enigmatic personality and unconventional tactics of the commander whom Napoleon considered ‘the most daring of all men’. Felt-tip mark on lower trimmed edge.
The Romans in Scotland
And the Battle of Mons Graupius
In 83 CE, following a seven-year campaign against Caledonian tribesmen, the Romans fought a final battle at which 10,000 of the enemy died. But recent investigation of marching camps in northern England and Scotland has suggested that Tacitus’ account, our main source for the battle, may not be accurate. Forder triangulates the ancient sources with the archaeological evidence to suggest a new location for the elusive battle site known as Mons Graupius.
A Brief History of the Roman Empire
Stephen Kershaw’s concise and engaging narrative history covers 500 years, from the rise of the Empire with Augustus to the fall of Rome in 476 CE. Presenting the evidence of Roman authors and recent archaeological finds, Kershaw considers not only the big events and emperors' careers but also details of Roman society and everyday life in the Empire.
The Greeks Overseas
Their Early Colonies and Trade
Described by the TLS as ‘a masterly summary’, this is a classic study of the earliest Greek trading posts and colonies. Boardman explains what archaeology has revealed about the Greeks’ travels as far afield as southern Egypt and northern Spain; he also highlights how much Greek arts and culture owed to foreign influences. This fourth edition features an extra chapter on recently discovered evidence and fresh theoretical approaches to the interpretation of this important period of European history.
The Mysteries of Stonehenge
Myth and Ritual at the Sacred Centre
By studying the fragments of myth and ritual that have survived through Britain’s oral tradition, Tolstoy attempts to explain the human story behind the mysterious stones of Stonehenge. Reconstructing the significant aspects of British pagan ideology from the pre-Roman era, and studying the material remains of this lost civilization, Tolstoy presents Stonehenge as the ancient people’s ‘sacred centre’, where the birth, death and eventual rebirth of their island was celebrated.
Late Roman Luxury Glasses
Displaying ‘aesthetic refinement and technical finesse second to none’, Roman cage cups are glass vessels decorated with delicate openwork, sometimes including an inscribed toast (‘Drink! For many years’). This book identifies the dates and locations of cage cups’ production, describes their characteristic shapes and colours and addresses different theories about the manufacturing processes that were used by ancient glassworkers. A catalogue presents more than 80 examples, each with commentary and bibliography.
On 5 Drachmas A Day
For the tourist in fifth-century-BCE Greece, this guide covers the journey from Thermopylae to Athens, and describes how best to explore that great city. The book is packed with historical and cultural information as well as practical matters, such as where to stay and the price of fish, and it ends with a selection of useful phrases (‘Tauta pant’ esti moi barbara’ – ‘This is all Greek to me’).
Ancient Egypt Transformed
The Middle Kingdom
Egypt’s Middle Kingdom (c.2030–1650 BCE) brought new developments in religious beliefs, political systems and artistic conventions. This volume comprises essays by an international team of scholars, covering such topics as the court and royal women, Egypt’s expanding relations with foreign lands and the themes of Middle Kingdom literature. Nearly 300 examples of the period’s art are featured; they demonstrate how artists were adapting older forms and iconography in work of great subtlety and originality.
Documentary Sources in Ancient Near Eastern and Greco-Roman Economic History
Methodology and Practice
Originating from a conference in Vienna in 2008 that brought scholars of Mesopotamian history together with classicists working on Greco-Roman sources, these 14 papers cover topics including Babylonian house structure, Old Assyrian trade, water-lifting technology and prices in the ancient Mediterranean and Near East.
The Great Empires of the Ancient World
Ranging from Egypt and the Mediterranean world to South Asia and China, this volume surveys the history and culture of each of the major imperial powers that held sway in the ancient world between 1600 BCE and 500 CE. As well as accessible accounts by a team of eminent scholars, the book features sections quoting texts written by inhabitants of the empires and is illustrated with maps, timelines and images showing such splendid artistic achievements as Sasanian silver and Roman mosaics.
Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt
From Early Dynastic Times to the Death of Cleopatra
Some ancient Egyptian queens, including Nefertiti, wife of the radical reformer Akhenaten, and Hatshepsut, who rose from the position of a conventional consort to that of female pharaoh, are still renowned today. These women are set alongside lesser-known queens in this collection of biographies, which reveals their uniquely varied roles and their importance across 3,000 years of their country’s history. The book also features timelines, genealogical tables and photographs of sites and artefacts.
Deadly Arena Sports of Ancient Rome
Gladiatorial spectacles were central to Roman society, fulfilling important roles beyond mere entertainment. Epplett describes their origins, gladiators’ training, staged beast hunts and the infrastructure of the arenas, and asks why these cruel events were so popular. Previously published as Gladiators and Beast Hunts.
The Athenian Story
How did a radical new set of democratic ideals emerge from the ancient Athenians’ search for a durable political order? In a lively narrative history, Professor Mitchell traces the influence of early revolutionary movements and describes how democracy took hold for two centuries. He analyses both the system’s strengths and the weaknesses that hastened its demise in the face of Macedonian conquerors. The book ends with an assessment of Athens’ political legacy in the modern world.
Temples and Tombs
Treasures of Egyptian Art from the British Museum
Thousands of years after they were created, the works produced by the royal artists of ancient Egypt retain their power to inspire wonder at its rich and vibrant culture. This volume – the catalogue of a 2006 exhibition – presents 85 artefacts, from imposing granite statues to delicate gold earrings, spanning the millennia of pharaonic history. It also features two essays, on the background to the manufacture of such items, and on the history of the British Museum’s Egyptian collections.
A Brief History of the Amazons
Women Warriors in Myth and History
Ancient Greek myth tells of ferocious female warriors called Amazons who lived near the Black Sea and slaughtered their male children. Could the story reflect a real matriarchal society, or perhaps a women-only religious cult? This book follows the author’s quest for the evidence, not only in ancient texts and artistic depictions but also in archaeological discoveries such as the graves of Iron-Age women buried with arrows, swords and armour.
Harry Mount's Odyssey
Ancient Greece in the Footsteps of Odysseus
'Odysseus began his journey home to Ithaca on the windswept plain beneath the burning ramparts of Troy... I started my odyssey in the Pret a Manger at Terminal 5 in Heathrow Airport': travelling to Troy via Istanbul, Harry Mount set out on a 21st-century journey in the footsteps of the ancient Greek hero. This irresistible book is both Mount's commentary on Odysseus' epic journey and an account of his own travels in modern Greece and around Homer's Mediterranean.
The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians
JB Bury (1861–1927) was Professor of Modern History, then of Greek, at Cambridge, but his most important contributions were to the study of Late Antiquity. This book brings together a series of lectures on the long period of migrations from the fourth to sixth centuries; with a focus on military matters, they examine how Germans, Visigoths, Gauls, Ostrogoths and Franks took control of Europe as the power and influence of the Roman Empire waned.
Greek Gems and Finger Rings
Early Bronze Age to Late Classical
The miniaturist art of gem engraving is the least familiar of the major arts of ancient Greece, yet we know it to have been practised by the greatest artists, and its masterpieces can challenge many better-known works of sculpture and painting. John Boardman presents a comprehensive, well-illustrated account of gem engraving in the Greek lands, examining the gems’ subject matter and iconography, the materials and technology used in creating them, and their relation to contemporary artistic works in other media. Slightly off-mint.
Chariots and Other Wheeled Vehicles In Italy Before the Roman Empire
Three categories of wheeled transport are documented in early Italy – carts and chariots with two wheels and wagons with four. This study of their construction and harnessing presents a wide range of archaeological evidence, such as wall paintings, terracotta models and the remains of actual vehicles. In the final chapter Crouwel considers the relative economic and social importance of the different means of land transport.
The Discovery of Middle Earth
Mapping the Lost World of the Celts
It was while planning a cycling expedition along the Via Heraklea, the legendary route of Hercules from the western tip of the Iberian Peninsula to the Alps, that Graham Robb discovered a precise pattern of towns and holy places based on astronomical and geometrical measurements: the three-dimensional 'Middle Earth' of the Celts. This volume describes his historical treasure hunt, revealing the lasting influence of the Druids, and looking afresh at the 'protohistory' of Europe.
Lost Voices of the Nile
Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt
Much of our knowledge about ancient Egyptian daily life concerns the highest levels of society, but archaeological excavations are now revealing valuable information about workers and their families. Examining this evidence, together with tomb inscriptions and papyri ranging from laundry lists to legal documents, Booth introduces intriguing characters such as the violent drunkard Paneb, the workmen who staged a strike over delayed payment, and Naunakhte, who disinherited her neglectful children.
The World of Philip and Alexander
A Symposium on Greek Life and Times
Alexander the Great conquered the known world in the fourth century BCE, but it was the achievements of his father, Philip II of Macedon, that laid the foundations of his success. This collection of essays, originally presented at a symposium at the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in Philadelphia, explores aspects of this pivotal period in classical history from the rulers' interest in the Olympic Games to the modern reconstruction of Philip II's skull, discovered in 1977.
Coinage in the Greek World
Coins can provide valuable information about social, economic and political life in ancient Greece and this introductory survey focuses on their circulation and use as it traces the development of the Greek coinage from its introduction in the 7th century BCE to the late Hellenistic period. Photographs of over 300 coins illustrate types from across the Greek world. First published in 1988.
A Chronology of Ancient Greece
Covering the period from c.560 to 145 BCE, this accessible reference work provides a year-by-year narrative of the most significant events across the Greek world and in those regions that came into contact with Greek culture. Detailed accounts of battles and political crises are provided and scholarly disputes about the dating or sequence of events are noted. The book concludes with an extensive bibliography of primary and secondary sources and a set of dynastic tables.
In Bed With the Ancient Egyptians
Sex featured prominently in ancient Egyptian religion, mythology and art, while Cleopatra's love affairs with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar continue to fire the imagination. Drawing on the evidence of texts and pictures from inscriptions and papyri, Booth's wide-ranging survey explores the Egyptians' customs relating to love, marriage and childbirth; their attitudes to adultery, prostitution and homosexuality; the place of sex in beliefs about the afterlife; and their doctors' ideas about sexual health, fertility and aphrodisiacs.
Inside the Neolithic Mind
Consciousness, Cosmos and the Realm of the Gods
During the Early Neolithic period (c.10,000–5,000 years ago) agriculture became a way of life and the first large settlements were established. In this sequel to The Mind in the Cave, the authors combine archaeological evidence, such as Near Eastern skull burials and the massive stone monuments of western Europe, with insights from research into the universal functioning of the human brain, to propose radical new theories about the role of mind, art and religion in ancient cosmology and society.
Animals and Roman Society
Ancient Romans often treated animals in ways that we consider cruel, but in many respects their attitudes were similar to our own. Ferris proposes ‘a way to understand Roman culture through analysing the society’s relationship with animals’. Using literary, visual and archaeological evidence, he shows how animals were kept for farm work and as household pets; how they were slaughtered for food, as sacrifices and as public entertainment; and how Romans presented animals in mythology and as attributes of deities.
On 5 Deben A Day
You have travelled back to 1250 BCE, to the land of the pharaohs – but how will you know which sights to see and what to do? Based on contemporary sources, this entertaining guide offers an archaeologist's advice on the local customs, food and drink, religious festivals and the vibrant cities of Memphis and Thebes. It also teaches such useful phrases as 'Mer pay-ee aa' ('My donkey is ill').
Catiline: The Monster of Rome
An Ancient Case of Political Assassination
Because of his attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic in 63 BCE, the name of Catiline has become a byword for conspiracy, treachery and depravity, but was he really as monstrous as his enemies claimed? Economic historian Francis Galassi presents a defence of Catiline, reassessing his actions and arguing that he felt compelled to stand up for common Romans against the elite at a time when the growing disparity between poor and wealthy was threatening to destabilize society.
A Brief History of Stonehenge
History and Archaeology of the World's Most Enigmatic Stone Circle
Britain's leading expert on stone circles here offers a comprehensive introduction to our most enigmatic ancient site. He explains how the stones were transported and their relationship with the surrounding burial sites; he carefully examines the possible astronomical meanings of the stones' alignment; and also debunks many myths and inaccurate mystical notions. Each successive generation has developed its own reading of the stones; Burl offers the most up-to-date assessment.
The Last Days of Pompeii
Decadence. Apocalypse. Resurrection
'The most famously dead of all ancient cities, yet the one that comes most vividly alive to us today', Pompeii has provided a metaphor for artists to explore the concerns of their own day ever since its rediscovery in the 18th century. This volume, which accompanied an exhibition at the J Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, explores the legacy of Pompeii in 92 works that range from 18th-century recreations of Roman murals to paintings by artists including Dali, Rothko and Warhol.
For nearly 4,000 years Egyptians skilfully embalmed both human and animal bodies in accordance with beliefs about their destiny in the afterlife; many mummies are still so well preserved that we can extract evidence about ancient people's lives and even gaze on their faces. Presenting examples of the embalmer's art now in the British Museum, Taylor explains the mummification and burial processes and the techniques used to study mummies today.
In Bed with the Romans
Writers' lurid tales of their rulers' sex lives are a familiar part of our image of ancient Rome, but how reliable are these accounts and what can such stories tell us about Roman attitudes to sexual behaviour and morality? Drawing on twelve centuries of evidence from literature, inscriptions, graffiti, medical handbooks, legal texts, magic spells and frequently explicit visual arts, this wide-ranging account explores the Roman view of love, marriage, childbirth, homosexuality, prostitution and infidelity.
History of Israel
Mercer Commentary on the Bible, Volume Two
Intended for classroom use, this second volume of the Mercer Commentary on the Bible comprises commentaries on the books of Joshua to Esther (according to the order of the Septuagint) with additional historical articles from the Mercer Dictionary.
The Queens of Ancient Egypt
Were Egyptian queens ever the equal in authority of their male counterparts? Drawing on written sources, archaeological research, artworks and religious texts, this book examines the roles of a queen - as pharoah's consort, mother of kings, priestess, regent for a minor or, like Hapshetsut, ruler in her own right. It is also a celebration of ancient Egypt's conception of female beauty, with over 250 photographs of artefacts depicting queens from Merineith in the archaic period to Cleopatra VII and the Ptolemaic queens.
Ancient Slavery and Abolition
From Hobbes to Hollywood
Focusing on Britain, North America, the Caribbean and South Africa from the 17th century, these 13 essays provide a groundbreaking study of the role played by the interpreters of ancient Greek and Roman texts in the debates over the abolition of slavery.
The Power Game in Byzantium
Antonina and the Empress Theodora
Justinian's reign (527–565) was a time of increasing intolerance and absolutism but also brought social mobility, with both the Empress Theodora and her friend Antonina rising from origins in the theatre to positions of great power and influence. In his history of this turbulent period Evans examines how both women negotiated the intrigues of the Byzantine imperial court; he pays special attention to Antonina's management of her husband Belisarius' career and Theodora's protection of Christians who rejected the Chalcedonian creed.
The Silbury Treasure
The Great Goddess Rediscovered
Situated just south of Avebury, Silbury Hill in Wiltshire is Europe's tallest prehistoric structure; when this book was first published in 1976, recent archaeological investigations had suggested that the hill was not, as had previously been believed, a burial mound. Dames surveys the history of earlier digs at the hill, then uses comparative archaeological evidence, astronomy, ethnography, folklore, mathematics and place-name research to argue that the shape of the site represents the Neolithic Great Goddess.
A Plain Blunt Man
The traditional image of Mark Antony – a simple, hard-drinking but capable soldier duped and manipulated by Cleopatra's sharper wits – was created by the propaganda of his enemy Augustus and the hostility of early historians. This biography offers a fresh reappraisal of a pivotal figure in Roman history, focusing on his positive traits, such as personal courage, integrity and loyalty, and arguing that he had a precise political vision for the Roman world after the tumultuous decades of civil war.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
28 Selected Chapters
This handsomely produced abridgement of Gibbon's great work features 28 of the original 71 chapters, with a precis of the remainder. Illustrated with Piranesi's engravings of Rome as Gibbon saw it, the volume also includes additional explanatory notes complementing the author's own and translating those 'licentious passages' which he left 'in the obscurity of a learned language'. Gilt-edged pages and silk marker.
The Royal Mummies
Immortality in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptians believed that the art of embalming, learned from the god Anubis, allowed pharaohs to enter the paradisal Field of Reeds and maintained the cosmic order. This lavishly illustrated book explains the physical procedure and religious rites which prepared the royal corpse and explores the texts which reveal ancient beliefs about its destiny. Janot also describes archaeologists' rediscovery of the mummies and presents information about the monarchs' lives and deaths which recent technology has helped reveal. Foreword by Zahi Hawass.
and the Lusitanian Resistance to Rome 155–139 BC
Viriathus – the humble shepherd who became leader of the Lusitanians – inflicted many humiliating reverses on theoretically superior Roman forces. Renowned during his lifetime, he has been unfairly neglected by modern historians, so Silva here presents for Anglophone readers the insights of recent Portuguese research and uses his own military expertise to inform his analysis of Viriathus’ guerrilla tactics. The final chapter traces the ancient leader’s transformation into a Portuguese national hero after his story was rediscovered in the Renaissance.
From Democrats to Kings
The Brutal Dawn of a New World from the Downfall of Athens to the Rise of Alexander the Great
By the end of the 5th century BCE the democratic city-state of Athens, defeated in a long war with Sparta, had lost its empire and been shaken by oligarchic revolution. As the author tracks the brutal power struggles that ensued, he examines how the rulers of Greek cities and the Persian empire responded to this moment of uncertainty – until the young Alexander the Great emerged from decades of turbulence to take control of a huge portion of the known world.
The Battle of Actium 31 BC
War for the World
The naval battle at Actium, when the future emperor Augustus defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra, was perhaps the most significant military engagement in Roman history. Yet many details of exactly what happened on that September day continue to elude scholars. This study of the literary and historical sources offers a fresh examination of the evidence, with close analysis of hitherto unconsidered allusions to Actium in the description of an equestrian engagement in Book Eleven of Virgil’s Aeneid.
Attica: Intermediate Classical Greek
Readings, Review, and Exercises
Designed to help students who have completed a year’s study of Attic Greek, this textbook combines revision with an introduction to the skills needed to read ancient authors. As well as sentences for translation, the exercises cover identification of word-forms, correct placement of accents and analysis of translation errors. Separate ‘grammar review’ sections use examples found in the 35 reading passages, from Xenophon, Antiphon and Euripides, each of which is furnished with step-by-step explanatory notes.
Identifying Roman Coins
A Practical Guide to the Identification of Site Finds in Britain
Focusing on the coins most commonly found in Britain, from the first to the late fourth century CE, this visual recognition guide teaches the practical skills required to identify Roman coin types. It enables collectors to confirm whether a coin is Roman and what metal it is made from, before using the line drawings to pinpoint its date and place of origin. First published in 1986. Second edition.
A Brief History of the Druids
The Druids have been perceived, and misunderstood, in many different ways – from the barbaric priests making human sacrifices the Romans described, to ancient exponents of 'New Age' philosophy. Peter Beresford Ellis sifts through archaeological, etymological and Greek and Roman written evidence to provide a fully researched account of the Druids, revealing them as the intellectual caste – the doctors, lawyers, ambassadors and advisors – of ancient Celtic society
The Complete Roman Emperor
Imperial Life at Court and on Campaign
The emperors who ruled Rome for five centuries are among the most famous and notorious leaders in history; yet what do we really know about their daily lives and how they ran the empire? From Augustus to the fall of the Empire in the West, Sommer writes vividly about the individuals who shaped the job of Roman emperor and describes how the role changed over the centuries. The book includes brief biographies of the 85 emperors and over 200 illustrations.
Two Deaths at Amphipolis
Cleon vs Brasidas in the Peloponnesian War
Mike Roberts brings a fresh perspective to the study of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE) by focusing on the clash of the two dynamic commanders who were killed in 422 during the battle over the Athenian colony at Amphipolis. Roberts follows the career of the heroic Spartan Brasidas, already a veteran of many campaigns when he headed north to this strategically important city, and reconsiders the Athenian Cleon, whose reputation was tarnished by the historian Thucydides’ vociferous criticism.
The Flame of Miletus
The Birth of Science in Ancient Greece (and How it Changed The World)
Ancient Greek science and philosophy began in the sixth century BCE in the wealthy city of Miletus in Asia Minor, where Thales and Anaximander proposed theories about the nature of the universe. This sweeping history of the Greek scientific tradition follows the chain of knowledge from these early physicists, through such thinkers as Aristotle and Archimedes, to the twilight of the classical age, the transmission of Greek ideas to the Islamic world and their revival in Europe during the Renaissance.
Even during his lifetime, Julius Caesar was a legendary figure, not least because his own writings were carefully designed to enhance his image. Complementing Southern’s other engaging biographies of late-Republican figures, this new account of Caesar’s life and death sheds light on the man behind the legend through careful examination of contemporary sources. The book reveals how he surmounted each difficulty with ‘a combination of determination, quick thinking, opportunism and, more often than not, a certain amount of luck’.
For the Glory of Rome
A History of Warriors and Warfare
Challenging the common modern distinction between Romans as organized, professional ‘soldiers’ and their opponents as individualistic ‘warriors’, this history of Roman warfare focuses on the part-time legionaries who served only for the duration of a campaign and sought glory in single combat. The author explores these warriors’ deeds, beliefs and mindset, through examples such as the man who fought with a prosthetic iron fist and a centurion who executed his commanding officer for cowardice.