The Crimes of Ancient Rome
With their bloodthirsty gladiatorial contests and brutal wars of conquest, not to mention the alleged corruption and sexual depravity of their tyrannical emperors, the Romans have a reputation for violence, excess and immorality. In this book Jerry Toner puts Rome on trial, using historical and legal texts, as well as evidence from surviving papyrus documents, to investigate how Romans thought about crime, whether ordinary citizens were basically law-abiding and what forms of detection and redress were available to victims.
Rome on the Euphrates
The Story of a Frontier
The Euphrates, a vital ancient trade route, formed the eastern limit of the Roman Empire. The river is the focus of this detailed historical account by the doyenne of Middle East travel writers, which covers eight centuries of Rome’s involvement in the region. Writing during the Cold War, Stark emphasizes the futility of such arbitrary boundaries and shows how trading communities gain mutually from traffic and lose through war.
Fact and Fiction
The intelligent, politically astute Cleopatra captivated both Caesar and Antony, two of the most powerful Romans of her age, and continues to fascinate us today. Watterson describes the events of the Egyptian queen’s life, examines how she came to symbolize the danger of female influence to Rome’s safety and traces the development of the Cleopatra legend in art and in drama for stage and screen. The book’s appendices present extensive excerpts from ancient sources.
People and the Sky
Our Ancestors and the Cosmos
Since the late 19th century, when lighting was first introduced to city streets, urban populations have lost most access to the night sky. Our ancestors, on the other hand, were highly attuned to the stars, their constellations and diurnal rhythms enabling them to entertain, farm, hunt and navigate. This book looks at how ancient societies as far flung as Polynesia, China, the Americas and Europe relied upon the stars for their survival and happiness. Off-mint.
King of Ancient Egypt
Egypt’s ancient rulers carefully constructed their image as brave, all-powerful military leaders who were pleasing to the gods. This volume, which focuses on highlights from a 2016 exhibition, is an exploration of the different ways in which pharaohs manipulated art to fashion that public persona. The authors reveal how the imagery and symbolism of traditional models were reinvented and how artistic representations of kingship played down court rivalries, civil war and delicate foreign relations.
In Search of the Lost Testament of Alexander the Great
Presenting his extensive research into the narrative sources, Grant challenges the ‘standard model’ by which historians assume that Alexander the Great died intestate. He argues that a surviving document, usually dismissed as fiction, preserves a version of the Macedonian leader’s will. This leads him to propose a new interpretation of Alexander’s vision and the wars of succession in which his generals vied for control of the vast empire.
A History in Seven Sackings
From the Gauls’ siege of the Capitoline Hill in 387 BCE to the city’s occupation by the Nazis in 1943, Kneale tells the story of Rome by focusing on pivotal moments when the arrival of an enemy army set it on a new course. In each case he explains who the attackers were, describes the city they encountered and examines how their actions transformed it.
The World of King Arthur
The myth of Camelot has been one of the most influential in the western tradition, with Arthur acting as a symbol of Christian rulership, national monarchy and romantic nostalgia. This illustrated survey of its long cultural history begins with the background of post-Roman Britain and follows the development of stories about Arthur and his knights, from medieval art and literature to Wagnerian opera and comic books.
Fact and Myth
Founded by Phoenician settlers on the North African coast, Carthage was a prosperous trading centre until its destruction by the Romans in 146 BCE. In this volume leading experts give an overview of the city’s history and culture, including Egyptian influences, the Punic writing system and the campaigns of Hannibal. The final chapters cover modern European images of Carthage, from 16th-century prints to 21st-century comics.
Emperor Alexander Severus
Rome's Age of Insurrection, AD 222–235
Following the murder of his cousin Elagabalus, 13-year-old Alexander Severus became ruler of the Roman Empire in 222 CE. In this detailed reassessment of the young emperor’s controversial reign, McHugh sets the scene by surveying events during the previous three decades of the Severan dynasty. He then considers the influence of Alexander’s advisors, including his mother Mamaea; his military successes; and the failures that led to his assassination by mutinous troops.
The Romans in Scotland
And the Battle of Mons Graupius
In 83 CE, following a seven-year campaign against Caledonian tribesmen, the Romans fought a final battle at which 10,000 of the enemy died. But recent investigation of marching camps in northern England and Scotland has suggested that Tacitus’ account, our main source for the battle, may not be accurate. Forder triangulates the ancient sources with the archaeological evidence to suggest a new location for the elusive battle site known as Mons Graupius.
Animals and Roman Society
Ancient Romans often treated animals in ways that we consider cruel, but in many respects their attitudes were similar to our own. Ferris proposes ‘a way to understand Roman culture through analysing the society’s relationship with animals’. Using literary, visual and archaeological evidence, he shows how animals were kept for farm work and as household pets; how they were slaughtered for food, as sacrifices and as public entertainment; and how Romans presented animals in mythology and as attributes of deities.
The Life and Wars of Rome's Greatest Enemy
The Carthaginian general Hannibal (247–183 BCE) won an enduring place in the popular imagination through his audacious expedition across the Alps with a contingent of elephants. But what were his motivations and why did his long campaign against Rome end in tragic failure? Combining evidence from ancient sources with his own experience of Hannibal-related sites, Prevas analyses the enigmatic personality and unconventional tactics of the commander whom Napoleon considered ‘the most daring of all men’. Felt-tip mark on lower trimmed edge.
Women at War in the Classical World
Ancient warfare is often assumed to have been the exclusive preserve of men, but Chrystal draws attention to the important roles played by women throughout Greek and Roman military history. He considers female commanders who were directly involved in strategy and tactics, including Cleopatra and Artemisia, as well as the countless thousands of ordinary women who came into contact with the military, as soldiers’ wives, camp followers or as non-combatant victims of war.
From Common Soldier to Emperor of Rome
A soldier of enormous height, Maximinus ‘the Thracian’ was enlisted into the Roman imperial bodyguard before himself becoming Emperor in a coup. Pearson charts this lesser-known ruler’s rise, his response to Rome’s 3rd-century ‘crisis’ and his campaigns against Persia and into barbarian Germania.
Ancient Peoples in their Own Words
Inscriptions are a fascinating source of information, offering insight into the lives, customs and concerns of ancient people, from kings and emperors to gladiators and restaurant owners. More than 200 examples are illustrated and discussed here, written between the 3rd millennium BCE and the 4th century CE. They include a dedicatory inscription from a Carthaginian street, a Hebrew calendar, Ptolemy V’s Rosetta Stone and the tomb inscription of Cyrus the Great. Previously published as The Ancients in their Own Words.
The Creation of an Icon
Although her life is poorly documented the beautiful appearance of Akhenaten’s consort Nefertiti has been made familiar by the haunting, colourfully painted bust excavated at Amarna in 1912. This history of the artwork first covers the evidence for its creator, manufacture and purpose during the ‘heretic’ pharaoh’s reign more than three millennia ago, then traces its remarkable (and sometimes controversial) celebrity and cultural influence in the modern world.
A History of Crete
The largest of the Greek islands has often been ruled by invaders attracted by its strategic position close to Europe, Africa and Asia. After describing the ancient Minoan civilization, this historical survey follows Crete’s fortunes through periods of occupation by powers from both west (Romans, Venetians, the Third Reich) and east (Byzantines, Ottomans), and illustrates how these experiences shaped Cretans’ fierce love of freedom as well as the traditional society and culture that continue to flourish today.
An Unexpected General
This military history of Rome during the short reign of Caligula (37–41 CE) analyses the Emperor’s campaigns and personal character through the evidence of contemporary writers such as Suetonius, Tacitus and Josephus. Although only 24 when he came to power, he proved a competent military strategist and despite the accusations of madness, cruelty and sexual perversion, managed to set the groundwork of Roman foreign policy for his successor Claudius.
Rome and the Sword
How Warriors and Weapons Shaped Roman History
Simon James takes an archaeologist’s approach to the study of Rome’s military history, telling the story of the sword – ‘the literal cutting edge of Roman power’ – from early times to the fall of the western empire. To supplement the battle narratives of ancient historical writers, he explains developments in sword-smithing techniques and military ideology, considers cultural reasons for changes in hardware and tactics and helps the reader to visualize the direct human experience of the ‘myriad individual acts of mayhem’ in battle.
Plato's Alarm Clock
And Other Amazing Ancient Inventions
From underwater breathing equipment (as described by Aristotle) to star charts (drawn on the walls of the Lescaux caves, 33,000–10,000 years ago), James Russell describes the inventions of ancient times. There are chapters on everyday life, with items as diverse as alarm clocks, make-up, games and chewing gum; mechanical and industrial technology, including the spoked wheel and movable type; military inventions; medical breakthroughs; scientific advances; and mysterious lost inventions such as Greek fire, Maya blue and the Baghdad battery.
History, Mystery and the Latest Discoveries
Discovered by chance by farmers in 1974, the mausoleum of the first emperor of China contained one of the wonders of the world: the Terracotta Army. Based on unique access to leading Chinese archaeologists, this book sets the clay warriors in the context of Chinese society 2,200 years ago, describes the latest discoveries at the vast and only partly excavated site, and hints at what may still be uncovered – including the imperial tomb itself.
In the Light of Amarna
100 Years of the Nefertiti Discovery
Described by its excavator as ‘the epitome of serenity and symmetry’, the brightly coloured plaster bust of Queen Nefertiti from Tell el-Amarna is one of the most famous examples of Egyptian art. These 29 essays set Nefertiti within the historical context of the Amarna period, assess the bust’s cultural impact in the 20th century and describe other artefacts found in the same location. More than 200 items are illustrated, including many unfinished carvings that offer glimpses into an ancient sculptor’s workshop.
A Civilization and its Writing
Most of the glyphs carved on the stone monuments of the ancient Maya civilization have now been deciphered. This handbook presents around 200 of the script’s symbolic characters, each with an interpretation of the concept that it expresses. The glyphs are arranged thematically to show what the Maya’s written records reveal about their lives and beliefs, their vigesimal number system and the complex organization of their solar and ritual calendars.
The Romans Who Shaped Britain
This vividly drawn history of Britannia puts the people of the province ‘back at the heart of the story’. Combining evidence from ancient texts and modern archaeology, the authors reassess familiar rulers and rebels, such as Claudius and Hadrian, Boudicca and Caratacus. They also discuss the influential roles played by many lesser-known figures and stress the importance of considering the actions of both Romans and Britons within the changing political and economic contexts of the wider empire.
A Year in the Life of Ancient Egypt
What would it have been like to live in Ancient Egypt? In this book one of the world’s most acclaimed Egyptologists imagines a year in the life of a government official and his family. Organized according to the three agricultural seasons that structured Egyptian lives – inundation, planting and harvesting – the family’s story illustrates aspects of their everyday lives and customs, their experience of the educational, medical and legal professions and their preparations for the afterlife.
The World of Cartimandua
During the first decades of Britain’s occupation by the Romans, Cartimandua was queen of the huge northern territory of the Brigantes. Combining the words of Roman authors with the evidence of hillforts and Celtic arts and artefacts, this reconstruction of her life examines how she cooperated with the invaders to ensure her tribe prospered, why Roman society viewed her as a shameless adulterer and whether she was a more important figure than the better-remembered Boudica.
Everyday Life in Hadrian's Britain
With characters from across the social strata, from high-born ladies to farmers' daughters, archaeologist Allason-Jones recreates the lives, habits and thoughts of women in Britain during Roman occupation through the story of Senovara, the wife of a former legionary. The detailed narrative reveals the nature of their home lives, health, religion, dress and jewellery and this revised edition includes fresh insights provided by the latest archaeological discoveries, including burials, tombstones and curse tablets.
In Search of Ancient North Africa
A History in Six Lives
Informed by the author’s long experience of travel in North Africa, this ‘journey into a landscape of ruins’ is structured around the lives of six much-mythologized figures who represent the region’s rich classical culture: the refugee Queen Dido, the generals Hannibal and Masinissa, King Juba II, Septimus Severus and Augustine the intellectual careerist. Rogerson argues that the choices each made about cultural assimilation and resistance to Rome resemble those still faced by their modern descendants.
Rome Seizes the Trident
The Defeat of Carthaginian Seapower and the Forging of the Roman Empire
In 264 BCE, when the Romans first went to war with Carthage, they had no navy, relying instead on ships from South Italian cities. However, when the Punic Wars ended more than a century later, Rome had developed a powerful fleet, which would prove vital for imperial expansion. DeSantis traces the growth of this naval supremacy and discusses the tactics that made it possible, such as the boarding-bridge by which the superior Roman infantry simply walked onto the enemy’s decks.
The Fall of the Ancient Maya
Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse
While the downfall of the Maya has variously been attributed to earthquake, famine, plague and war, this account of their demise, which critically evaluates many of the proposed causes, asks not only how the civilization collapsed, but what collapsed. David Webster draws upon recent archaeological research and discoveries at sites including Copán, Tikal and Piedras Negras to examine the history and culture of the Maya, and to analyse the complex factors behind their decline. Slightly off-mint.
Warrior and King
King Arthur, long regarded as the leader of oppressed Britons against invading Saxon hordes, emerges from this fresh analysis as a boastful Irish raider who used his battles to carve out a kingdom in western Britain. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Carleton combines evidence from archaeology, literature and the study of place names to reconstruct the career of the 6th-century ruler, who he suggests was a pagan warlord, and to propose a new location for the renowned Battle of Badon.
The Roman Fighter's Unofficial Manual
‘Having people fight and kill each other for entertainment requires some pretty flexible moral gymnastics’, writes Philip Matyszak. Here, he introduces the world of the gladiator, from entering the ludus (gladiator school) to the surprisingly wide range of career options if (a rather big ‘if’) you survive combat in the arena. The ‘manual’ includes quotes from the ancient authorities, a survey of the Empire’s best arenas and photographs of modern, reconstructed gladiators.
Judaea and Rome in Coins 65 BCE-135 CE
Papers Presented at the International Conference Hosted by Spink, 13th-14th September 2010
This volume comprises 14 papers presented at a 2010 conference on recent advances in numismatic scholarship relating to the period from the conquest of Judaea to the last major Jewish uprising against Roman rule. The contributors draw on evidence from many new coin finds in the region to shed light on such subjects as the Roman influence on local coinage, Hadrian’s characterization as a second Nero and the use of Jewish emblems and Hebrew slogans.
When in Rome
Social Life in Ancient Rome
With hundreds of excerpts from contemporary sources, this survey of Roman social history features the words of elite male authors alongside evidence from correspondence, inscriptions, graffiti and curse tablets that record the voices of women, and those from lower classes. Organized thematically, the book covers topics including family life, food and medicine, but also deals with issues less often addressed in modern accounts of ancient Rome, such as domestic abuse, disability and female genital mutilation.
The Rise of Athens
The Story of the World's Greatest Civilization
Classical Athens, a community of just 200,000 citizens, not only gave birth to some of antiquity's greatest geniuses but also created the world's first democracy, raising political issues that remain relevant today. Complementing his account of The Rise of Rome, Everitt surveys the Athenian achievement, from the early centuries of kings and tyrants, through the democratic revolution and the city's intellectual and artistic flowering in the age of Socrates and Pericles, to its decline with the growth of Macedon.
Egyptology's Greatest Discovery
In 1922, when Howard Carter discovered Tutankhamun’s intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings, the world looked on with a fascination that has lasted ever since. After setting the boy king’s short life in its historical context, this volume tells the story of the expedition, featuring photographs of the tomb’s excavation and a selection of Carter’s detailed drawings and journals, as well as presenting some of the 5,398 well-preserved objects that were found buried with the pharaoh.
Gifts for the Gods
Ancient Egyptian Animal Mummies and the British
Cats, birds and crocodiles are among the animals mummified in quantity by the ancient Egyptians and deposited as votive offerings. With contributions from 19 experts, this collection of illustrated essays details animals’ role in Egyptian religion and traces both the British fascination with such artefacts and the recent development of innovative techniques for studying them.
Alexander the Great
Themes and Issues
Recent scholarship has challenged Alexander’s epithet ‘Great’, judging his conquests destructive rather than, as earlier historians believed, a civilizing force. This study examines Alexander’s life and career through the major issues surrounding his reign and legacy. In chapters on his Macedonian background, the legacy of Philip II, deification, the administration of an empire, and Asia, Anson sets out the major academic positions, evaluates the historical evidence and brings a new clarity to the history of Alexander.
Women in Ancient Greece
Seclusion, Exclusion, or Illusion?
Most histories of Ancient Greece focus on male protagonists, implying that women were a secluded, excluded part of society. Paul Chrystal questions this assumption, investigating the lives of Ancient Greek women writers, philosophers, artists and scientists, and their experiences of love, marriage, religion and death. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod and others, he demonstrates that women’s roles were far more nuanced and complex than previously portrayed.
A Brief History of the Roman Empire
Stephen Kershaw’s concise and engaging narrative history covers 500 years, from the rise of the Empire with Augustus to the fall of Rome in 476 CE. Presenting the evidence of Roman authors and recent archaeological finds, Kershaw considers not only the big events and emperors' careers but also details of Roman society and everyday life in the Empire.
The Mysteries of Stonehenge
Myth and Ritual at the Sacred Centre
By studying the fragments of myth and ritual that have survived through Britain’s oral tradition, Tolstoy attempts to explain the human story behind the mysterious stones of Stonehenge. Reconstructing the significant aspects of British pagan ideology from the pre-Roman era, and studying the material remains of this lost civilization, Tolstoy presents Stonehenge as the ancient people’s ‘sacred centre’, where the birth, death and eventual rebirth of their island was celebrated.
Late Roman Luxury Glasses
Displaying ‘aesthetic refinement and technical finesse second to none’, Roman cage cups are glass vessels decorated with delicate openwork, sometimes including an inscribed toast (‘Drink! For many years’). This book identifies the dates and locations of cage cups’ production, describes their characteristic shapes and colours and addresses different theories about the manufacturing processes that were used by ancient glassworkers. A catalogue presents more than 80 examples, each with commentary and bibliography.
Ancient Egypt Transformed
The Middle Kingdom
Egypt’s Middle Kingdom (c.2030–1650 BCE) brought new developments in religious beliefs, political systems and artistic conventions. This volume comprises essays by an international team of scholars, covering such topics as the court and royal women, Egypt’s expanding relations with foreign lands and the themes of Middle Kingdom literature. Nearly 300 examples of the period’s art are featured; they demonstrate how artists were adapting older forms and iconography in work of great subtlety and originality.
Documentary Sources in Ancient Near Eastern and Greco-Roman Economic History
Methodology and Practice
Originating from a conference in Vienna in 2008 that brought scholars of Mesopotamian history together with classicists working on Greco-Roman sources, these 14 papers cover topics including Babylonian house structure, Old Assyrian trade, water-lifting technology and prices in the ancient Mediterranean and Near East.
The Great Empires of the Ancient World
Ranging from Egypt and the Mediterranean world to South Asia and China, this volume surveys the history and culture of each of the major imperial powers that held sway in the ancient world between 1600 BCE and 500 CE. As well as accessible accounts by a team of eminent scholars, the book features sections quoting texts written by inhabitants of the empires and is illustrated with maps, timelines and images showing such splendid artistic achievements as Sasanian silver and Roman mosaics.
Deadly Arena Sports of Ancient Rome
Gladiatorial spectacles were central to Roman society, fulfilling important roles beyond mere entertainment. Epplett describes their origins, gladiators’ training, staged beast hunts and the infrastructure of the arenas, and asks why these cruel events were so popular. Previously published as Gladiators and Beast Hunts.
The Athenian Story
How did a radical new set of democratic ideals emerge from the ancient Athenians’ search for a durable political order? In a lively narrative history, Professor Mitchell traces the influence of early revolutionary movements and describes how democracy took hold for two centuries. He analyses both the system’s strengths and the weaknesses that hastened its demise in the face of Macedonian conquerors. The book ends with an assessment of Athens’ political legacy in the modern world.
Temples and Tombs
Treasures of Egyptian Art from the British Museum
Thousands of years after they were created, the works produced by the royal artists of ancient Egypt retain their power to inspire wonder at its rich and vibrant culture. This volume – the catalogue of a 2006 exhibition – presents 85 artefacts, from imposing granite statues to delicate gold earrings, spanning the millennia of pharaonic history. It also features two essays, on the background to the manufacture of such items, and on the history of the British Museum’s Egyptian collections.
A Brief History of the Amazons
Women Warriors in Myth and History
Ancient Greek myth tells of ferocious female warriors called Amazons who lived near the Black Sea and slaughtered their male children. Could the story reflect a real matriarchal society, or perhaps a women-only religious cult? This book follows the author’s quest for the evidence, not only in ancient texts and artistic depictions but also in archaeological discoveries such as the graves of Iron-Age women buried with arrows, swords and armour.
Harry Mount's Odyssey
Ancient Greece in the Footsteps of Odysseus
'Odysseus began his journey home to Ithaca on the windswept plain beneath the burning ramparts of Troy... I started my odyssey in the Pret a Manger at Terminal 5 in Heathrow Airport': travelling to Troy via Istanbul, Harry Mount set out on a 21st-century journey in the footsteps of the ancient Greek hero. This irresistible book is both Mount's commentary on Odysseus' epic journey and an account of his own travels in modern Greece and around Homer's Mediterranean.
The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians
JB Bury (1861–1927) was Professor of Modern History, then of Greek, at Cambridge, but his most important contributions were to the study of Late Antiquity. This book brings together a series of lectures on the long period of migrations from the fourth to sixth centuries; with a focus on military matters, they examine how Germans, Visigoths, Gauls, Ostrogoths and Franks took control of Europe as the power and influence of the Roman Empire waned.
Greek Gems and Finger Rings
Early Bronze Age to Late Classical
The miniaturist art of gem engraving is the least familiar of the major arts of ancient Greece, yet we know it to have been practised by the greatest artists, and its masterpieces can challenge many better-known works of sculpture and painting. John Boardman presents a comprehensive, well-illustrated account of gem engraving in the Greek lands, examining the gems’ subject matter and iconography, the materials and technology used in creating them, and their relation to contemporary artistic works in other media. Slightly off-mint.
Chariots and Other Wheeled Vehicles In Italy Before the Roman Empire
Three categories of wheeled transport are documented in early Italy – carts and chariots with two wheels and wagons with four. This study of their construction and harnessing presents a wide range of archaeological evidence, such as wall paintings, terracotta models and the remains of actual vehicles. In the final chapter Crouwel considers the relative economic and social importance of the different means of land transport.
The Discovery of Middle Earth
Mapping the Lost World of the Celts
It was while planning a cycling expedition along the Via Heraklea, the legendary route of Hercules from the western tip of the Iberian Peninsula to the Alps, that Graham Robb discovered a precise pattern of towns and holy places based on astronomical and geometrical measurements: the three-dimensional 'Middle Earth' of the Celts. This volume describes his historical treasure hunt, revealing the lasting influence of the Druids, and looking afresh at the 'protohistory' of Europe.
Lost Voices of the Nile
Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt
Much of our knowledge about ancient Egyptian daily life concerns the highest levels of society, but archaeological excavations are now revealing valuable information about workers and their families. Examining this evidence, together with tomb inscriptions and papyri ranging from laundry lists to legal documents, Booth introduces intriguing characters such as the violent drunkard Paneb, the workmen who staged a strike over delayed payment, and Naunakhte, who disinherited her neglectful children.
The World of Philip and Alexander
A Symposium on Greek Life and Times
Alexander the Great conquered the known world in the fourth century BCE, but it was the achievements of his father, Philip II of Macedon, that laid the foundations of his success. This collection of essays, originally presented at a symposium at the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in Philadelphia, explores aspects of this pivotal period in classical history from the rulers' interest in the Olympic Games to the modern reconstruction of Philip II's skull, discovered in 1977.
Coinage in the Greek World
Coins can provide valuable information about social, economic and political life in ancient Greece and this introductory survey focuses on their circulation and use as it traces the development of the Greek coinage from its introduction in the 7th century BCE to the late Hellenistic period. Photographs of over 300 coins illustrate types from across the Greek world. First published in 1988.
A Chronology of Ancient Greece
Covering the period from c.560 to 145 BCE, this accessible reference work provides a year-by-year narrative of the most significant events across the Greek world and in those regions that came into contact with Greek culture. Detailed accounts of battles and political crises are provided and scholarly disputes about the dating or sequence of events are noted. The book concludes with an extensive bibliography of primary and secondary sources and a set of dynastic tables.
Inside the Neolithic Mind
Consciousness, Cosmos and the Realm of the Gods
During the Early Neolithic period (c.10,000–5,000 years ago) agriculture became a way of life and the first large settlements were established. In this sequel to The Mind in the Cave, the authors combine archaeological evidence, such as Near Eastern skull burials and the massive stone monuments of western Europe, with insights from research into the universal functioning of the human brain, to propose radical new theories about the role of mind, art and religion in ancient cosmology and society.
A Brief History of Stonehenge
History and Archaeology of the World's Most Enigmatic Stone Circle
Britain's leading expert on stone circles here offers a comprehensive introduction to our most enigmatic ancient site. He explains how the stones were transported and their relationship with the surrounding burial sites; he carefully examines the possible astronomical meanings of the stones' alignment; and also debunks many myths and inaccurate mystical notions. Each successive generation has developed its own reading of the stones; Burl offers the most up-to-date assessment.
In Bed with the Romans
Writers' lurid tales of their rulers' sex lives are a familiar part of our image of ancient Rome, but how reliable are these accounts and what can such stories tell us about Roman attitudes to sexual behaviour and morality? Drawing on twelve centuries of evidence from literature, inscriptions, graffiti, medical handbooks, legal texts, magic spells and frequently explicit visual arts, this wide-ranging account explores the Roman view of love, marriage, childbirth, homosexuality, prostitution and infidelity.
The Queens of Ancient Egypt
Were Egyptian queens ever the equal in authority of their male counterparts? Drawing on written sources, archaeological research, artworks and religious texts, this book examines the roles of a queen - as pharoah's consort, mother of kings, priestess, regent for a minor or, like Hapshetsut, ruler in her own right. It is also a celebration of ancient Egypt's conception of female beauty, with over 250 photographs of artefacts depicting queens from Merineith in the archaic period to Cleopatra VII and the Ptolemaic queens.
Ancient Slavery and Abolition
From Hobbes to Hollywood
Focusing on Britain, North America, the Caribbean and South Africa from the 17th century, these 13 essays provide a groundbreaking study of the role played by the interpreters of ancient Greek and Roman texts in the debates over the abolition of slavery.
The Power Game in Byzantium
Antonina and the Empress Theodora
Justinian's reign (527–565) was a time of increasing intolerance and absolutism but also brought social mobility, with both the Empress Theodora and her friend Antonina rising from origins in the theatre to positions of great power and influence. In his history of this turbulent period Evans examines how both women negotiated the intrigues of the Byzantine imperial court; he pays special attention to Antonina's management of her husband Belisarius' career and Theodora's protection of Christians who rejected the Chalcedonian creed.
The Silbury Treasure
The Great Goddess Rediscovered
Situated just south of Avebury, Silbury Hill in Wiltshire is Europe's tallest prehistoric structure; when this book was first published in 1976, recent archaeological investigations had suggested that the hill was not, as had previously been believed, a burial mound. Dames surveys the history of earlier digs at the hill, then uses comparative archaeological evidence, astronomy, ethnography, folklore, mathematics and place-name research to argue that the shape of the site represents the Neolithic Great Goddess.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
28 Selected Chapters
This handsomely produced abridgement of Gibbon's great work features 28 of the original 71 chapters, with a precis of the remainder. Illustrated with Piranesi's engravings of Rome as Gibbon saw it, the volume also includes additional explanatory notes complementing the author's own and translating those 'licentious passages' which he left 'in the obscurity of a learned language'. Gilt-edged pages and silk marker.
The Royal Mummies
Immortality in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptians believed that the art of embalming, learned from the god Anubis, allowed pharaohs to enter the paradisal Field of Reeds and maintained the cosmic order. This lavishly illustrated book explains the physical procedure and religious rites which prepared the royal corpse and explores the texts which reveal ancient beliefs about its destiny. Janot also describes archaeologists' rediscovery of the mummies and presents information about the monarchs' lives and deaths which recent technology has helped reveal. Foreword by Zahi Hawass.
and the Lusitanian Resistance to Rome 155–139 BC
Viriathus – the humble shepherd who became leader of the Lusitanians – inflicted many humiliating reverses on theoretically superior Roman forces. Renowned during his lifetime, he has been unfairly neglected by modern historians, so Silva here presents for Anglophone readers the insights of recent Portuguese research and uses his own military expertise to inform his analysis of Viriathus’ guerrilla tactics. The final chapter traces the ancient leader’s transformation into a Portuguese national hero after his story was rediscovered in the Renaissance.
From Democrats to Kings
The Brutal Dawn of a New World from the Downfall of Athens to the Rise of Alexander the Great
By the end of the 5th century BCE the democratic city-state of Athens, defeated in a long war with Sparta, had lost its empire and been shaken by oligarchic revolution. As the author tracks the brutal power struggles that ensued, he examines how the rulers of Greek cities and the Persian empire responded to this moment of uncertainty – until the young Alexander the Great emerged from decades of turbulence to take control of a huge portion of the known world.
The Battle of Actium 31 BC
War for the World
The naval battle at Actium, when the future emperor Augustus defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra, was perhaps the most significant military engagement in Roman history. Yet many details of exactly what happened on that September day continue to elude scholars. This study of the literary and historical sources offers a fresh examination of the evidence, with close analysis of hitherto unconsidered allusions to Actium in the description of an equestrian engagement in Book Eleven of Virgil’s Aeneid.
Attica: Intermediate Classical Greek
Readings, Review, and Exercises
Designed to help students who have completed a year’s study of Attic Greek, this textbook combines revision with an introduction to the skills needed to read ancient authors. As well as sentences for translation, the exercises cover identification of word-forms, correct placement of accents and analysis of translation errors. Separate ‘grammar review’ sections use examples found in the 35 reading passages, from Xenophon, Antiphon and Euripides, each of which is furnished with step-by-step explanatory notes.
Identifying Roman Coins
A Practical Guide to the Identification of Site Finds in Britain
Focusing on the coins most commonly found in Britain, from the first to the late fourth century CE, this visual recognition guide teaches the practical skills required to identify Roman coin types. It enables collectors to confirm whether a coin is Roman and what metal it is made from, before using the line drawings to pinpoint its date and place of origin. First published in 1986. Second edition.
Two Deaths at Amphipolis
Cleon vs Brasidas in the Peloponnesian War
Mike Roberts brings a fresh perspective to the study of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE) by focusing on the clash of the two dynamic commanders who were killed in 422 during the battle over the Athenian colony at Amphipolis. Roberts follows the career of the heroic Spartan Brasidas, already a veteran of many campaigns when he headed north to this strategically important city, and reconsiders the Athenian Cleon, whose reputation was tarnished by the historian Thucydides’ vociferous criticism.
The Flame of Miletus
The Birth of Science in Ancient Greece (and How it Changed The World)
Ancient Greek science and philosophy began in the sixth century BCE in the wealthy city of Miletus in Asia Minor, where Thales and Anaximander proposed theories about the nature of the universe. This sweeping history of the Greek scientific tradition follows the chain of knowledge from these early physicists, through such thinkers as Aristotle and Archimedes, to the twilight of the classical age, the transmission of Greek ideas to the Islamic world and their revival in Europe during the Renaissance.
Even during his lifetime, Julius Caesar was a legendary figure, not least because his own writings were carefully designed to enhance his image. Complementing Southern’s other engaging biographies of late-Republican figures, this new account of Caesar’s life and death sheds light on the man behind the legend through careful examination of contemporary sources. The book reveals how he surmounted each difficulty with ‘a combination of determination, quick thinking, opportunism and, more often than not, a certain amount of luck’.
For the Glory of Rome
A History of Warriors and Warfare
Challenging the common modern distinction between Romans as organized, professional ‘soldiers’ and their opponents as individualistic ‘warriors’, this history of Roman warfare focuses on the part-time legionaries who served only for the duration of a campaign and sought glory in single combat. The author explores these warriors’ deeds, beliefs and mindset, through examples such as the man who fought with a prosthetic iron fist and a centurion who executed his commanding officer for cowardice.
Chronicle of the Old Testament Kings
The Reign-By-Reign Record of the Rulers of Ancient Israel
The history of ancient Israel is told through the biographies of 83 leaders, from the founder Abraham (c.1450 BCE) and his son Isaac to Herod Agrippa, who died in 44 CE when the region was under Roman occupation. Seeking to reveal the historical figures behind the familiar names and traditional stories, Rogerson discusses debates about the accuracy and interpretation of the biblical accounts and the insights provided by other ancient texts and archaeological discoveries. Off-mint.
The Development of Medieval North Atlantic Identities
Looking beyond the warlike Viking stereotypes, this study demonstrates how distinct identities developed in the North Atlantic islands that were settled by the Norse as they migrated from their Scandinavian homelands between 800 and 1250. Knight uses evidence from archaeological sites and texts including sagas and law codes to examine the settlement, economy and lifestyle of three zones, following the settlers’ progress from Shetland and the Faroe Islands, via Iceland, to Greenland.
Surveying a vast, ancient empire, this authoritative volume, illustrated with over 180 photographs, gives an account of what is known of the rise of the Incas and examines their politics, economics and religion, art and technology. Following the Inca roads, the authors travel the length and breadth of the empire and reconstruct the cities, especially Cusco, in their heyday. Finally, they describe the arrival of the Spaniards and the Incas’ demise.
Dawn of Egyptian Art
The objects made during the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods (c.4400–2649 BCE) provide the best means of examining how the ancient civilization in the Nile Valley gave rise to Pharaonic Egypt. Discussing 183 items, from a bowl inscribed for King Djet (c.3050 BCE) to the stela of King Raneb (c.2880 BCE), this volume reflects on the early Egyptians’ representations of people, animals and the landscape, and their reasons for making these objects.
Tales from the Land of Dragons
1,000 Years of Chinese Painting
Ancient China nurtured the world’s oldest continuous tradition of painting on silk and paper, with brushwork much influenced by trends in the art of calligraphy. This volume brings together 153 items from the unique collection at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, ranging from the Han to the Yuan Dynasty, many of which treat Buddhist and Daoist subjects. Each image is accompanied by commentary on the painting’s content; an introduction describes the art form’s techniques, cultural context and stylistic development.
Veni Vidi Vici
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the Romans but Were Afraid to Ask
From ‘a small collection of hilltop huts in Latium’ to the Empire’s conversion to Christianity, Peter Jones provides sharp, focused and stimulating information on 1,200 years of Roman history. Each of the twelve chapters begins with a broad summary of the period it covers, followed by short ‘nuggets’ on topics relevant to the era, including important individuals, places, politics and war, architecture, literature and everyday life.