1016 & 1066
Why the Vikings Caused the Norman Conquest
The Norman Conquest of 1066 was not the only ‘Conquest’ of the eleventh century; 50 years before William I’s victory at Hastings, the ‘Viking Conquest’ of 1016 made Cnut king of Denmark and England. This book argues that the consequences of that earlier conquest, including the exile of the Anglo-Saxon heirs to the English throne and the entanglement of English, Norman and Scandinavian politics, led to the defeat of Harold Godwinson in 1066.
Used for 40,000 years, and prized for its beauty and versatility, ivory is a material that humans have been prepared to kill for. This comprehensive study begins by looking at conservation, and the range of animals – from mastodon to sperm whale – from which ivory has been derived. The author goes on to examine ivory as a material, describes techniques for identifying and caring for existing ivory pieces, and finally charts its world history, from prehistoric times to the present day.
A History of the English Language in 100 Places
In 100 Places
How did the Germanic dialect of a small island become a lingua franca spoken by two billion people across the globe? This compelling guide charts the history of the English language from the earliest texts to the age of Twitter. Attractively illustrated with colour photographs and maps, the book focuses on 100 places that played a key role in the development of the language, from Canterbury – where the Latin alphabet was adopted – to Kolkata, and from Salford to San Francisco.
The Children History Forgot
Young Workers of The Industrial Age
The dark truth behind the glittering displays of merchandise in the Great Exhibition's Crystal Palace was how those products – the glass, cutlery, lace, candles and cotton – were made by children of all ages labouring in the mines and factories of Georgian and Victorian Britain. This study looks at the various industries and occupations that used child labour, including agriculture and the infamous chimney sweeping, and describes the painfully slow struggle to improve working conditions and educational opportunities for the children.
Tyranny and The Lash
Prisoners and Punishment in British History
Medieval people gave little thought to prisoners or to the conditions in which they were kept, but by Victorian times troubling questions were being asked about the purpose and effectiveness of incarceration. Wade traces the evolving nature, use and management of British prisons over the centuries, asks whether changes in practices such as hard labour and solitary confinement have made the prison system more humane and investigates how social changes led to new definitions of criminality.
At the end of the 18th century, Cheshire, like other counties of England, boasted a wealthy and elegant elite whose lifestyle stood in stark contrast to estate and factory workers living in increasingly poor conditions. This history reviews the changing times in Cheshire for all strata of society as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace and rioters and reformers threatened the social order, canal and railway builders transformed the landscape and the Napoleonic wars threatened Britain's place in the world.
The History and Virtues of Cyder
In his plea for real cyder, ‘a living wine of some subtlety, matured in cask and bottle in the manner of champagne’, RK French describes the rise and fall of its popularity and sets out, in practical detail, the traditional techniques for making it – from growing, gathering and pressing apples, to fermentation and laying down a vintage. The book also includes some recipes for cooking with cyder. First published in 1982.
Art, Craft and Conservation
Stained glass combines form and function in a unique way, and practitioners such as Steve Clare have been creating beautiful work for centuries. This book follows the historical development of the art form, but it is also a technical manual, describing in great detail the tools and techniques involved in the design, production and conservation of stained glass. There are many illustrations of both work in progress and the greatest surviving historical examples.
Playing the Great Game
Britain, War and Politics in Afghanistan Since 1839
Edmund Yorke argues that many of the difficulties encountered during British military engagements in Afghanistan over the past 170 years have been caused by politicians' excessive interference in military operations, their failure to provide sufficient resources and their inability to understand the country's complex ethnicity. He also discusses previously unpublished source material that sheds new light on key events of the four Anglo-Afghan wars, and reveals the crucial but underestimated role played by Afghan allies and collaborators.
Fireballs, Skyquakes and Hums
Probing the Mysteries of Light and Sound
Weird and mysterious phenomena can often be observed in skies around the world, ranging from unusual sunsets, comets and St Elmo's fire to less easily explicable voices and humming sounds, phantom planes and UFOs. In this book Antony Milne analyses reports of such sightings, delves into defence files on UFOs and surveys some of the explanations that have been suggested by physicists, biologists, meteorologists and astronomers.
A Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases
For this short dictionary, Tuleja has selected foreign tems that are neither completely Anglicized nor merely pedantic. From Abendland (German: 'the West') to zolotaya seredina (Russian: 'the golden middle'), he a gives a translation, pronunciation and information on meaning and history; and there is much more - among the 'Special Categories' are classical phobias, a Sanskrit sampler, Italian musical terms and fearless leaders (caliph, czar, kaiser etc). Finally, there are indexes of words and phrases and subjects.