Imperial Russian Air Force 1898–1917
In Photographs at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century
Compared with the US and France, Russian colonization of the skies was almost a decade behind, but by 1910 a nascent aviation industry, with its flying schools, festivals and maiden flights, began capturing the nation’s imagination. This collection of over 400 photographs documents the flying machines of pre-revolutionary Russia, from turn of the century balloons and dirigibles to First World War bombers, and portrays the enthusiasts and aviators that made the Russian skies come alive.
The Battle of Barrosa 1811
Forgotten Battle of the Peninsular War
In an attempt to break the siege of Cádiz in 1811, Spanish, Portuguese and British forces were sent south from the city by sea in order to approach the French lines from the rear. This book examines in detail the resulting battle at Barrosa, a tactical victory for the British commander Sir Thomas Graham that failed to achieve a decisive rout of the French but did prevent an absolute defeat of Spain and influenced the course of the war against Napoleon.