The Apocalypse of Napoleon Bonaparte: His Last Years,
from Waterloo to St Helena: A Medical Biography
Since Napoleon died a prisoner on St Helena in 1821, there has been much speculation about the cause of his demise. This ground-breaking study sidesteps rumour and speculation, focusing solely on the reports of the doctors who attended him. Its conclusion is startling. While the immediate cause of death was a gastric ulcer, Napoleon's underlying poor health was due to the hostility of the island's governor, Hudson Lowe, and a scandal involving the mistress of Admiral Plampin, commander of its naval station.