Lady Jane Grey
Nine Days Queen
As the great-niece of Henry VIII, Jane Grey was a pawn in the power game of Tudor politics. The dying Edward VI made Jane his heir and, on 6 July 1553, aged 16, she became queen. Her reign lasted nine days: when Mary Tudor claimed the throne, Jane was sent to the Tower and beheaded in 1554. In this compassionate biography, Plowden tells the story of a gifted, scholarly girl, doomed by her royal blood.
The Little Girl Who Fought the Great Depression
Shirley Temple and 1930s America
During the 1930s Shirley Temple became the biggest box office star in the world: this is the story of her film career, with a strong focus on the wider cultural and political impact of her movies. Supported by contemporary photographs and visual material, it also explores the way that huge merchandise sales boosted jobs and local economies, and how the cinema reflected the mood of the nation during the Depression and FDR’s New Deal.
The Corner Shop
Shopkeepers, the Sharmas and the Making of Modern Britain
Growing up in a Reading corner shop, the BBC television newsreader Babita Sharma was witness to a changing world and its impact on customers’ lives and opinions as well as the products they bought. In this volume, she links her recollections of shop life with the last fifty years of British history, reflecting on an institution that, despite the creep of supermarkets, online shopping and home delivery, has found a way to evolve and survive.
Emily Wilding Davison
The Martyr Suffragette
Emily Davison’s death beneath the king’s horse at the 1913 Derby has overshadowed the life that led up to it. Drawing on her own words and those of people who knew her, this biography charts the formative experiences of this intelligent, resourceful and determined woman: an education thwarted by lack of money, work as a governess, and involvement in campaigns about the injustices faced by women that resulted in her imprisonment and force-feeding.
The Life and Choices of Lady Anne Barnard
Lady Anne Barnard lived at the heart of Georgian society – the Prince of Wales was a friend, and Walter Scott admired her verses – but her defiance of convention made her an outsider. Drawing on her unpublished papers, including six volumes of memoirs, this biography brings the poet, musician, artist and hostess vividly to life, and tells how she travelled to France to observe the Revolution, married an army officer twelve years her junior, and raised an illegitimate child.
Last Children of the Raj
British Childhood in India, Volume 2: 1939–1950
Focusing on how the contributors fared during the Second World War and its aftermath, volume two of Laurence Fleming's anthology is organized chronologically and features accounts of perilous voyages out to India to escape the blitz in Britain, fleeing from Burma, the 1942 Bengal famine, and the horrors of partition. It includes a biography of each contributor and numerous black and white photographs.
Last Children of the Raj
British Childhoods in India, Vol I 1919 – 1939
From anecdotes about snakes in Madras and Christmas time in Bengal to memories of boarding school in Bombay and houseboat holidays in Kashmir, this first volume of Laurence Fleming's anthology is organized geographically and describes the trials and thrills that were integral to a British-Indian childhood during the final era of the Raj. It includes a biography of each contributor and numerous black and white photographs.
The Dark Stuff
Stories from the Peatlands
Blending memoir, travelogue and natural history, The Dark Stuff investigates a unique, often undervalued resource. Recalling his childhood on the moorland of Lewis, Murray explores the story of peat-cutting for fuel and compost. He visits peatlands from Ireland to Australia, examines the role of peat in folklore and the ancient bodies preserved in it, and explains the environmental threats faced by peat landscapes.
A Mind at Play
The Brilliant Life of Claude Shannon, Inventor of the Information Age
One of the key thinkers of the computer age, Claude Shannon worked as a cryptanalyst during the Second World War and his contributions to digital circuit design and information theory in the 1930s and 1940s made modern computing possible. This biography explores his life, academic achievements and influential personal projects, such as a maze-solving mouse (one of the first experiments in artificial intelligence) and the first design for a chess-playing computer.
Maud Allan and the Myth of the Femme Fatale
In 1918 the dancer Maud Allan brought a libel case against Noel Billing MP for claiming in print that she was a lesbian. Drawing on a wealth of archival material, Wendy Buonaventura explores Allan’s controversial career, and examines the way the case embodied early 20th-century attitudes to ‘dangerous’ women, whose independence, freedom from convention, and erotic allure were seen as a threat to the fabric of society, and even a cause of the First World War.
Rooms with a View
The Secret Life of Grand Hotels
The world’s grandest hotels offer luxury, service and splendour, and each has its own story of love affairs conducted and revolutions fomented beneath its roof. Arranged geographically, this book visits 50 of the greatest, including New York’s Algonquin, where Dorothy Parker held court; the Dorchester in London, favoured by Hitchcock and Hemingway; and the Imperial in Delhi, where the details of India’s independence were negotiated.
West Like Lightning
The Brief, Legendary Ride of the Pony Express
As their nation stood on the brink of Civil War, Americans were captivated by a new postal service that, for just 18 months, carried mail almost 2,000 miles across the continent using a relay of daring young horseback riders. In this book the coauthor of American Sniper explores the origins and development of the Pony Express, debunks myths that quickly grew up around it and considers its lasting relevance as a symbol of American enterprise. Slightly off-mint with felt tip mark on upper trimmed edge. American-cut pages.
Customs in Common
Conceived as a companion to The Making of the English Working Class, this study describes the culture of working people in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Discussing themes including law and agrarian practice, the ‘moral economy of the crowd’, work, and rough music, Thompson describes the gradual disappearance of working-class customs during the period of industrialization and economic change. First published in 1993. Slightly off-mint.
British Aristocrats in the American West 1830–1890
From the 1830s onwards, a succession of British aristocrats headed for the American West, taking with them their valets, their dogs – and their prejudices. This sparkling account describes the newcomers' experiences as they crossed the country to meet Native Americans, hunt buffalo and build cattle empires. Packed with lively incident and colourful personalities, it also charts their reception by Americans often less than pleased at the return of their former colonial overlords.
White Boots and Miniskirts
A True Story of Life in the Swinging Sixties
From the author of Bombsites and Lollipops, this is a memoir of the Swinging Sixties, recounting how Jacky grew up as a free-spirited, hedonistic girl in search of adventure and independence. The decade’s music, fashion and culture has become iconic, but this is a more personal look at a world of souped-up Minis, conmen, typewriters, bed-hopping, tragic romances, flat-sharing, Soviet spies and the smoke-filled pubs of Fleet Street. Slightly off-mint.
The Golden Thread
How Fabric Changed History
From the fibres our ancient ancestors wove from plants to the invention of the synthetic material that enabled humans to venture into space, fabric has played many roles throughout history, far beyond offering warmth and protection, demarcating status and providing an outlet for self-expression. This collection of essays considers topics such as the linen used by the ancient Egyptians to wrap their dead, the craft that inspired Vermeer to paint The Lacemaker and recent innovations in sports textiles.
The National Theatre Story
Drawing on the National Theatre’s own archives, Daniel Rosenthal traces its history from the early campaigners of the mid-19th century to the passing of the National Theatre Bill in 1949, the inaugural performance of Hamlet at the Old Vic in 1963 and the opening of the South Bank complex in 1976. He goes on to describe 60 key productions and draws on interviews with playwrights, actors, directors and administrators to tell the story of the National up to the present day.
Women's Hairstyles and Culture from 1920 to 1980
Illustrated with vintage photographs, contemporary images and sketches, this visual history explores how the coiffeurs of western women evolved as social expectations gradually relaxed. The author considers the rise of fashions such as the kiss curls favoured by the dancers of the Folies Bergère, Jacqueline Kennedy’s signature bouffant, rock-n-roll beehives and anarchic punk spikes, and closes with a section dedicated to iconic hairstylists, past and present.
The United Kingdom, 1800–1906
From the Act of Union with Ireland in 1800 to the Liberal Party’s landslide victory in 1906, Cannadine breaks new ground in the history of the 19th century, exploring the ‘many contradictions of progress’ during the United Kingdom’s era of national greatness and imperial aggrandisement. He emphasizes how stable, parliamentary democracy was crucial to Britain’s success, but also explores the darker side of British life and the challenges facing a global power. Part of The Penguin History of Britain series.
Great British Parks
Public parks, created in the rapidly growing towns and cities of the 19th century, are a precious legacy of open spaces, bandstands, boating lakes and meeting places, yet neglect left them in decline by the 1980s and 1990s. Visiting over 50 parks today, this book celebrates 20 years of the Heritage Lottery Fund, the Green Flag Award and the contributions of park staff and volunteers whose efforts to protect, maintain and improve public parks have revitalized these invaluable civic amenities. Slightly off-mint.
An Edwardian Housewife's Companion
A Guide for the Perfect Home
Written from a first person perspective and drawing on contemporary advertisements and photographs, this light-hearted study of the lifestyle of affluent Edwardian women offers insights into their complicated garments, their questionable, even dangerous, health and beauty regimes and their household management, shopping and entertainment habits.
When in Rome
Social Life in Ancient Rome
With hundreds of excerpts from contemporary sources, this survey of Roman social history features the words of elite male authors alongside evidence from correspondence, inscriptions, graffiti and curse tablets that record the voices of women, and those from lower classes. Organized thematically, the book covers topics including family life, food and medicine, but also deals with issues less often addressed in modern accounts of ancient Rome, such as domestic abuse, disability and female genital mutilation.
A Man Called Plenty Horses
Senika-Wakan-Ota; The Last Warrior of the Great Plains War
In 1891, after the massacre at Wounded Knee, a Sioux man named Plenty Horses shot dead one Lieutenant Casey. Told mainly through Native American eyewitness testimonies, this account of his trials, which hinged on whether criminal acts were justified in war, also charts the Plains Indians’ four-decade struggle against a United States determined to seize their lands, reveals Plenty Horses’ despair at reservation life, and exposes the devastating effects of assimilation on Native American culture.
Dress Like a Woman
Working Women and What They Wore
Although women started to enter employment en masse in the early 20th century, it was not until the 1970s that they began to exercise a modicum of autonomy over what they wore at work. Accompanied by introductory essays by fashion journalist Vanessa Friedman and New York Times. bestselling author Roxane Gay, the 240 photographs in this volume depict the changes in women’s clothing in the workplace over the last hundred years.
The Fear and the Freedom
How the Second World War Changed Us
The Second World War was one of the most destructive in history, but also one of the most innovative, sweeping away empires and creating new global institutions. Ranging over five continents, this study examines how the war shaped the modern world, inaugurating the arms race and the space race, the United Nations and Bretton Woods, decolonization and globalization. With demagoguery on the rise again, it argues, we cannot afford to ignore this legacy.
A Survivor's Flight from Nazi-Occupied Vienna Through Wartime France
Literary editor of a Viennese newspaper, Moriz Scheyer was forced to flee the Nazis, only to be arrested when they invaded France. In this memoir, begun in hiding in a French convent in 1943 and found in an attic half a century after its author’s death, he recalls his incarceration in a concentration camp, escape, contact with the Resistance, and many threats to his life.
The Jamestown Brides
The Untold Story of England's 'Maids for Virginia'
In 1621 the near-bankrupt Virginia Company of London made a profit by shipping across the Atlantic 56 young women who had been hand-picked as brides for the planters of its new colony. Using archival sources including the company’s own records, Potter gives voice to these women, asking why they agreed to make the dangerous journey, how they adapted to their new lives, how they chose their husbands and what happened to them in the end.
It's All a Game
A Short History of Board Games
Board games have existed for millennia and, despite the allure of smartphones, remain hugely popular, even giving birth to the recent phenomenon of board-game cafés. From the ancient Egyptian Senet (‘a playable guide to the afterlife’), via such classics as Monopoly (which originally used a circular board), this book explores why they captivate us and traces their development up to the latest innovative ‘Eurogames’.
Paging Through History
Although we live in an increasingly digital world, the simple technology of paper – which the Chinese consider the first of the ‘great inventions’ – remains vital. In this history of paper the author examines when and why it came into use in different cultures around the world and how it has played a role in the development not only of literacy, art and education but also of religion, media and commerce. Off-mint and American-cut pages
And the British
The Charge of the Light Brigade, Gordon’s Last Stand, Scott of the Antarctic: many of the best-known episodes in British history are tales of fortitude and calm in the face of disaster. This study of the ‘heroic failure’ tradition offers a reassessment of Victorian and Edwardian attitudes to soldiers and explorers, arguing that Britons’ enthusiastic celebration of such failures resulted from their desire to see the Empire as just, benevolent and moral.
The Arts of Intimacy
Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Making of Castilian Culture
In a well-illustrated study of ‘the lost memory of Castile’, the authors explore the dynamic intermingling of Arabic, Hebrew and Latin elements in medieval Castilian visual and literary culture. The book includes a chronology, genealogies and an extensive bibliographic essay on sources and readings.
Britain in 1846
Focusing on one critical year, this study identifies the developments that paved the way for the prosperity of Victorian Britain. It demonstrates how, amid widespread poverty and disease, industry flourished and railways spread across the land, bringing millions from the countryside to the cities, while Robert Peel’s abolition of the Corn Laws split the Tory party and ushered in an era of free trade.
The Battle Over Oscar Wilde's Legacy
For years after Oscar Wilde’s death, his two closest friends and former lovers, Lord Alfred Douglas and Robert Ross, fought for control of his manuscripts and reputation, and argued over who was to blame for his downfall. Drawing on previously unpublished information, Oscar’s Ghost uncovers a bitter feud that involved stalking, blackmail, witness tampering, lawsuits and prison, and influenced the way we perceive Wilde to this day.
The Strangest, Least Successful and Most Audacious Financial Follies, Plans and Crazes of All Time
This light-hearted look at the financial ideas and policies of economists and politicians down the ages outlines the theories of thinkers and leaders such as Adam Smith, Karl Marx and Margaret Thatcher. Describing various ill-conceived schemes and disasters such as Hugo Chávez’s management of Venezuela, the author is on the side of the free market in his lampooning of economic experts and ideological politicians.
How Traditional Crafts Are About More than Just Making
When it first appeared in Old English, 'cræft' signified a sense of knowledge, wisdom and resourcefulness. Using our collective nostalgia for authentic objects produced by human hands as a starting point, the archaeologist and broadcaster Alexander Langlands interweaves historical research, scientific analysis and personal anecdotes. He attempts to recover the lost meaning of the word, stressing the importance of passing on traditions from one generation to the next.
The Story of Britain
From the Romans to the Present Day
This introduction to British history begins with the geographical description of the island itself which, Roy Strong believes, has shaped the nation, its people and its politics. Invasions, migrations, civil wars, and two world wars have all been influenced by Britain’s uneasy relationship with mainland Europe, while a desire for self-sufficiency produced the empire and the Industrial Revolution. This new edition has been extended to cover the years from 1996 to the 2016 EU referendum.
From the Mill to Monte Carlo
The Working-Class Englishman who Beat the Monaco Casino and Changed Gambling Forever
Joseph Jagger had worked for many years in the textile trade in Bradford when he made an extraordinarily bold trip to Monte Carlo, armed with borrowed money, a team of accomplices and a scheme to win big on the roulette wheel. This account of his life and historic winning streak describes how he managed to break the bank and walk away with a fortune, worth the modern equivalent of £7.5 million.
Utility Furniture of the Second World War
The 1943 Utility Furniture Catalogue
When furniture shortages in Britain hit an all-time high following the Blitz, the government responded by setting up the Utility Furniture scheme. This comprehensive guide, which accompanies a facsimile reproduction of the first catalogue, offers an insight into the privations of the war years and, for those who remember this sturdy furniture, a chance to reminisce.
Some Sunny Day
A Nurse. A Soldier. A Wartime Love Story
When Madge stepped onto a troop ship headed for Burma in 1944, she knew that life as a military nurse would be challenging. In this memoir, written with the aid of journalist Robert Blair, she recalls her experiences, humorous as well as difficult; the friends she shared them with; and how, amid the trauma and tragedy, she also found true love.
Crosses of the Peak District
The Peak District contains some of the finest examples of carved Saxon crosses and the remains of many plain crosses. This detailed, illustrated survey is arranged in chapters on boundary, wayside, churchyard, market and memorial crosses and the round-shafted Mercian crosses.
The Life and Legacy of a Hebridean Priest
The Catholic priest Father Allan MacDonald (1859–1905) was not only a much-loved champion of his Hebridean parishioners on Eriskay, but also an accomplished Gaelic poet and one of Scotland's greatest collectors of folklore. Hutchinson's beautifully written book recounts the life and work of this remarkable man against the richly evoked backdrop of an island landscape where myth and spirituality entwine.
And the Plan for Edinburgh's Third New Town
Rising just beyond the centre of Edinburgh, the once rural Calton Hill was developed in the late 18th century to extend the city towards the port of Leith. The site’s contrasting architectural styles are often perceived as a commentary on the friction between Scottish and British nationalism, reflecting the nuances that define Scotland’s sense of identity within Britain. In this well-illustrated study, the author investigates Calton Hill’s creation, its history, and its symbolism for Scotland today.
The Wood for the Trees
One Man's Long View of Nature
In 2011, the scientist Richard Fortey bought four acres of beech woodland in the Oxfordshire Chilterns. His month-by-month account of a year in the woods begins with the appearance of bluebells in April and ends as nature springs back to life in March. In between, he recounts tree-felling in January, moth-hunting in June, explains the complex network of plant and animal life that sustains the wood, and offers recipes for wild mushrooms and other delicacies foraged from the undergrowth. American-cut pages.
The English Isles
Cultural Transmission and Political Conflict in Britain and Ireland, 1100–1500
This collection of nine papers originated in a conference that offered new perspectives on the origins of England’s empire, the impact of English medieval imperialism, and the ways in which English cultural norms were transmitted to Ireland, Scotland and Wales after the Norman Conquest. Among the essay topics are 12th- and early 13th-century English views on kingship; Anglicization in medieval Ireland; and post-medieval accounts of the Lordship of the Isles.
Women of the 1960s
More Than Mini Skirts, Pills & Pop Music
The clichéd ‘sex, drugs and rock ’n’ roll’ view of the 1960s stands in stark contrast to the experiences of many ordinary women who lived through the decade, particularly those outside London. This illustrated social history is based on interviews with people who were teenagers, students, workers and housewives during the decade, and covers subjects including sex, marriage, motherhood, fashion, finance, travel, women's liberation and the ever-present threat of nuclear war.
Victorians and Edwardians Abroad
The Beginning of the Modern Holiday
The Polytechnic Touring Agency (PTA) was created in 1888 to cater for the growing numbers of lower middle-class people who could for the first time afford to holiday abroad. From the PTA archive at the University of Westminster, this book uncovers the recollections of those who enjoyed ‘Poly holidays’ before 1914. Illustrated with postcards, photographs and promotional items, it records their train journeys to Paris, Switzerland and Italy, and reveals a penchant for mischievous fun.
100 Criminal Lives
The practice of transporting criminals to Australia was abandoned in 1868 and replaced by the convict system: serious offenders were sentenced to ‘penal servitude’ in UK prisons and later released on license. Using information in licensees’ records, this volume presents brief biographies of 100 criminals, arranged in an A–Z, from Samuel Ainge (b.1820) who, after a seemingly blameless life was arrested for embezzlement in 1883, to Mary Wright (b.1853), who drowned her young daughter in 1880.
Six for the Tolpuddle Martyrs
The Epic Struggle for Justice and Freedom
Taking its title from a radical version of the song ‘Green Grow the Rushes, O’, this history explores the lives and politics of the six Dorset farm labourers sentenced to transportation in 1834 for attempting to establish a trade union. It records the struggle against a reduction in agricultural wages that led to their arrest and trial, their experiences in Australia, and the public campaign that brought about their eventual pardon and homecoming.
Life Below Stairs in Their Own Words 1800–1950
Focusing on the stories of ordinary men and women who worked as servants in the homes of the middle classes, this book gives a ‘warts and all’ history of domestic service. In each of four periods, Michelle Higgs first surveys the work, conditions and social issues of the day before introducing the servants and their testimony, from Mary Ann Ashford, general servant, housemaid and cook in 1800, to Amy Jones, a 14-year-old general servant and nursemaid in 1945.
Maladies and Medicine
Exploring Health and Healing 1540–1740
In Early Modern England, it was believed that tiny worms caused tooth cavities and that inflammation of the blood triggered smallpox. Those unlucky enough to fall ill would often find themselves subjected to 'cures' such as herbal infusions, skin blistering and blood letting. This guide looks in detail at the most common medical conditions of the period and analyses sources including contemporary physicians' notes, journals and letters to investigate how patients reacted to their treatment.
In Bed with the Georgians
Sex, Scandal and Satire in the 18th Century
The sex trade flourished openly and profitably in Georgian England, particularly in the area around London’s Covent Garden. This illustrated history considers how the ‘oldest profession’ permeated all classes – from the courtesans who plied their trade within the very highest echelons of society right down to the common prostitutes who walked the streets – and examines how the scene was portrayed by the letter writers, journalists, satirists and caricaturists of the time.
Images of the Past: The British Seaside
Drawing on the archives of the Mary Evans Picture Library, this collection of photographs, cartoons, illustrations and ephemera tells the story of the British seaside, looking at how the purpose, traditions and character of coastal resorts have developed since the first sea bathing cure destinations opened in the late 18th century. Each image is captioned and accompanied by explanatory text.
The History of Newgate Prison
From the 12th century onwards, Newgate Prison played a key role in the development of the British penal system, housing well-known prisoners from Captain Kidd to Ben Jonson and Daniel Defoe, as well as murderers, rapists and arsonists. Illustrated with historic prints and portraits, this book explores its traditions and lexicon of slang, and offers accounts of executions, the pillory and famous escapes.
Childhood and Death in Victorian England
Sarah Seaton surveys the hazards of childhood in an age when childbirth was fraught with danger, child labour was exploited, there was no adequate protection against disease, and little, if any social support for the poor. As well as these daunting obstacles to health and happiness, the book describes cases of child murder, infanticide and concealment of birth, and explains the often desperate circumstances in which such crimes were committed.
The Case of the Chocolate Cream Killer
The Poisonous Passion of Christiana Edmunds
During the summer of 1871, Christiana Edmunds went on a poisoning spree in Brighton, sending parcels of poison-laced sweets to some of the town’s most prominent citizens. The sensational trial of ‘the Chocolate Cream Killer’ ended with a death sentence, which was later commuted to life imprisonment. Looking at the Edmunds family history as well as the poisonings, Kaye Jones reveals the tragic past that set Christiana on a path to insanity and murder.
Lifting the Lid on Women's Lives
This social history examines the lives of late 19th- and early 20th-century women at home and at work through the changing appearance of the buttons that decorated and fastened their clothes. Lynn Knight explores the role of these accessories as emblems of security, identity and independence and explains how each example represents an era or a vanished way of life, from Victorian mourning attire to Biba’s large statement buttons of the 1970s.
An English Odyssey
The Pendleburys of Lancashire and London: Nine Generations of a Working Family
The Pendleburys were an English family of alehouse keepers, cotton workers, parish clerks, soldiers, washerwomen and warehousemen, whose genealogical records can be traced back to the 1600s. This history, written by a descendant of the family, follows their fortunes from the social and religious turmoil of the 17th century through the cotton boom of 18th-century Lancashire to the unforgiving streets of Victorian London.
The Pug Who Bit Napoleon
Animal Tales of the 18th and 19th Centuries
Animals played an often eclectic role in 18th- and 19th-century life, and this compendium includes the stories of the four-legged friends of famous figures including Samuel Johnson and Charles Dickens, the purloined pet donkey that was the subject of a famous lawsuit, the Regency-era pony who took a ride in a hot air balloon, and the bloodhounds that were hired to hunt Jack the Ripper.
A Cultural History
Édith Piaf (1915–1963) began her singing career on the streets of Pigalle in 1929; at her death in 1963, she had become an icon of French chanson. In this study, Looseley examines ‘the cultural phenomenon known as Édith Piaf’ and argues that it was a deliberate invention.
British Women's History
A Documentary History From the Enlightenment to World War I
This anthology presents a highly readable selection of extracts from a wide range of female sources, usefully grouped by theme. Topics naturally include motherhood, marriage and domestic life, but here is also commentary on religion, politics, work and education by contributors from all walks of life. These are the authentic voices of British women's experience (and the occasional man's), from the close of the 18th century to the outbreak of the First World War. No jacket.
The London Treasury
A Collection of Cultural and Historical Insights into a Great City
This concise guide includes a brief history of the city, and tours of its museums, galleries, parks and gardens. There are sections devoted to its myths, riots and rebellions, literary London, the River Thames – and the location of the oldest pub.
A Cultural History
Jim Endersby explores ‘the curious and unexpected variety of significances that people have ascribed to orchids’ in western cultures, from Theophrastus’ herbals in ancient Greece to Raymond Chandler’s The Big Sleep, deadly species in science-fiction and ongoing research into Spider Orchids on the South Downs. The book looks at our relationship with orchids in terms of science, sex and death, and examines the theme of empire, describing how European imperial expansion and wealth stimulated the search for ever rarer orchids.