Lenin remains to this day a colossal figure: the founder of the Bolshevik faction and one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century. In this critically acclaimed biography, Robert Service – the first historian to have access to Communist Party archives after they were ‘unsealed’ – provides a complete portrait of Lenin, set in historical context.
The Last of the Tsars
Nicholas II and the Russian Revolution
The distinguished historian of revolutionary Russia, Robert Service brings a profound understanding of the period and a forensic examination of official and personal records to this study of Nicholas II’s life and thought in the 16 months after the February 1917 Revolution and his abdication. The book examines the political environments of the Tsar’s places of detention, Irkutsk, Tobolsk and Ekaterinberg; his thinking on Russia and his own role; and the circumstances of the Romanov family’s execution in July 1918.
The Final Chapter
When nine skeletons were exhumed near Ekaterinburg, Siberia in July 1991 it prompted an investigation into whether they were the remains of Nicholas II and his family, executed by Bolsheviks 73 years earlier. This investigative history, framed by a narrative of the Romanov’s last days, records the scientific processes that were undertaken by experts from Russia, America and the UK in order to establish the identities of the remains.
The Splintered Empires
The Eastern Front 1917–21
At the beginning of 1917, three warring empires were at breaking point. Russia was the first to collapse, triggering the Bolshevik Revolution; but by the end of 1918, both the German and Austro-Hungarian empires had also disintegrated. The fourth and final volume of Prit Buttar’s history of the Great War’s Eastern Front charts these momentous events and describes the ‘successor wars’ that followed the Armistice – the bitter struggles for national sovereignty that paved the way for the Second World War.
To Free the Romanovs
Royal Kinship and Betrayal in Europe 1917–1919
When Russia erupted in revolution, some members of the imperial family managed to flee abroad, but for the tsar, the tsarina and their children, months of imprisonment ended in brutal death. Why, when they were so closely related to all the ruling houses of Europe, were they not helped to escape? This searching history examines the responses of their royal cousins in Britain, Germany, Norway and Denmark, and asks whether enough was done to save the Romanovs.
The Last Tsar
The fate of Tsar Nicholas II and his family has long haunted the public imagination. The autocratic ruler of one-sixth of the earth’s land area, he was responsible for mass imprisonment, pogroms and the shooting of demonstrators; yet photographs show him as a shy, gentle family man. This balanced and sympathetic history outlines the personal and political background that shaped his doomed reign, and could have overwhelmed a far abler ruler.
The Russian Revolution
First published in 1958 and reissued in 2017 to mark the centenary of the Russian Revolution, Alan Moorehead’s classic study covers events in Russia from Tsarist Petrograd in 1916, through the Revolution of 1917 to the Brest-Litovsk treaty taking Russia out of the First World War in February 1918. A renowned war correspondent and historian, Moorehead gives a concise and straightforward narrative of revolutionary Russia, written from a Western perspective during the Cold War.