Military History from Primary Sources
A Victorian military writer’s classic accounts of Renaissance warfare in the British Isles are reproduced here, together with the engravings that illustrated them, detailing skirmishes from the Battle of Flodden in 1513 to the Battle of Newburn Ford in 1640.
Fields of Battle
Retracing Ancient Battlefields
Richard Evans has visited each of the ancient battle sites analysed in this volume and brings new perspectives based on an understanding of the terrain and the latest archaeological finds. The study covers the famous battles of the Persian Wars such as Marathon and Thermopylae, Caesar's campaigns in Iberia, and Vitellius’s battles of Bedriacum in 69 CE.
Snipers at War
An Equipment and Operations History
This history and analysis of snipers’ equipment and tactics takes an overview of the role and psychology of marksmen from the medieval period onwards, and details the improvements in observation, accuracy and ranging that transformed sniping over the last century. Individual stories include the Finn who amassed 505 kills in less than 100 days of the 1939–40 Winter War, resulting in the USSR training over 2000 snipers.
The Military Use of Massive Weapons
Artillery using gunpowder was first deployed in China during the 11th century; as it spread westwards the new technology quickly rendered existing defences obsolete and prompted the development of larger, more destructive weapons. From early bombards to the atomic cannons of the Cold War, this chronological survey comprises illustrated case studies of the very largest guns, with descriptions of their use in land and sea battles and data on their length, weight, calibre and range.
Edward I's Conquest of Wales
Sean Davies presents a balanced account of the 13th-century conquest of Wales, giving Welsh and English perspectives on the war, looking at the forces and ambitions of both Edward and Llywelyn Gruffudd, and at the sufferings of the people of Wales. However, Davies places the conquest in the context of Welsh warfare and society since the demise of the Romans, offering an alternative to the common view of Wales overwhelmed by a more sophisticated military culture.
William III's Italian Ally
Piedmont and the War of the League of Augsburg, 1683–1697
Although the War of the League of Augsburg was mostly fought in northern Europe it was the Italian front that William of Orange, leader of the Grand Alliance against the French, regarded as crucial. This book explains the political background, profiles the protagonists, and follows the course of the war. Historic portraits, maps and prints are supplemented by eight specially commissioned colour plates illustrating the combatants’ uniforms and flags.
Marlborough's Other Army
The British Army and the Campaigns of the First Peninsular War, 1702–1712
The War of the Spanish Succession was fought across much of Europe, but this history focuses on the lesser-known campaign in Spain itself. It examines the size and composition of the British and Dutch forces fighting under the Duke of Marlborough and charts all the engagements in this theatre, from smaller skirmishes to Almanza. Historic paintings, prints and maps, alongside new colour plates, illustrate the narrative.
A History of Booby Traps from World War One to Vietnam
Among military weapons, there is an entire category of devices that are designed to operate surreptitiously: apparently harmless objects that become lethal when someone disturbs or approaches them. Alongside numerous illustrations of booby traps, mines, delayed-action devices and mobile charges, Ian Jones details the development of this destructive type of weapon, as well as the experts’ attempts to disarm them, from the First World War to Vietnam.
Badon and the Early Wars for Wessex
Circa 500 to 710
This reappraisal of the early battles of the Britons and Saxons casts doubt on the reliability of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, while proposing explanations, tactical overviews and locations for the battles that established the kingdom of Wessex. It starts with an account of the historical situation after the Roman occupation, before focusing on the crucial Battle of Badon Hill, and using detailed maps, military theory and battle plans to analyse subsequent campaigns.
Native American Warriors
The Legendary Tribes, Their Weapons and Fighting Techniques
Charting Native American struggles against white interlopers from the Pequot Wars (1636–38) to the Ghost Dance War of 1891, this history profiles warriors such as Metacomet, Pontiac, Tecumseh and Sitting Bull, and examines the tactics they employed. Illustrated with more than 180 photographs and artworks, it also describes the varied tribes and cultures: East Coast agriculturalists, mound-builders on the Mississippi, buffalo hunters on the plains, and the pueblo-dwellers of the Southwest.
'We Are Accustomed to do Our Duty'
German Auxiliaries with the British Army 1793–95
At the outbreak of war with France in 1793, the British Army was significantly understrength and its soldiers lacked expertise in advanced manoeuvres. Britain therefore had to rely on auxiliaries from various German states to pursue Allied campaigns in the Low Countries. This account of their role provides previously unpublished information on the negotiation of treaties with German princes and the organization and experiences of the contingents.
Tales of Equine Courage from Waterloo to Korea
From Copenhagen, grandson of Eclipse, the great British Thoroughbred race horse, and the Duke of Wellington’s mount at the Battle of Waterloo, to a Mongolian mare, Sergeant Reckless carrying ammunition to US Marines under fire during the Korean War, this military history recounts the exploits of celebrated war horses, reflecting on the characteristics of different breeds as well as the qualities of the individual mounts.
Hastings to Culloden
Battles of Britain
This classic survey by two expert military historians looks at every battle fought on British soil since the Norman Conquest. Each campaign is described in detail, with battle plans and sketch maps, and placed in historical context; while details of arms and tactics illustrate the changing nature of warfare between 1066 and 1746.
An Illustrated History
After briefly surveying ancient constructions such as Maiden Castle and Gwalior Fort in India, Jeremy Black goes on to present a history of fortifications based on their depiction on maps and plans. From Norman castles – Pontefract is shown in a plan from 1561 – the book shows how buildings as bases for attack or defence changed as ever more powerful armaments were developed, up to the trenches and defences such as the Maginot and Siegfried Lines in the 20th century.
The Royal Navy
100 Years of Maritime Warfare in the Modern Age
Produced in association with the National Museum of the Royal Navy, this exploration of the service’s campaigns since 1914 also features removable facsimile documents and ephemera including pages from a sketchbook showing the action at the Battle of Jutland, a report from the captain of one of the destroyers involved in the evacuation of Dunkirk and the commanding officer’s ‘design for battle’ notes for the amphibious landing at San Carlos in the Falkland Islands in 1982.
The Greatest Siege in British History
During the Great Siege of Gibraltar (1779–83), the longest ever endured by the British, the powerful forces of Spain and France blockaded and assaulted the isle from land and sea. Thousands of civilians and soldiers experienced starvation, disease and deadly bombardment. Including maps and illustrations, this book explores the story of the siege and its impact on life back home, while examining the argument that it ultimately cost the British the American War of Independence.
The Army of James II 1685–1688
The Birth of the British Army
Credit for creating the British army often goes to Charles II or William III, with James II’s role in the organization of a viable, expanded institution overlooked. Ede-Borrett addresses this with a thorough, illustrated account of its development, drawing on royal archives and contemporary documents to detail its regiments, troops, uniforms, equipment, flags and other paraphernalia.
Nelson at Naples
Revolution and Retribution in 1799
One of the most inglorious events of Nelson’s career concerned the fate of the short-lived republic established in Naples by revolutionary France. Drawing on accounts by Nelson himself, Lady Hamilton and others, this book tells how, after being offered safe passage, the republicans were handed over to the besieging Royalists, from whom they received no mercy. It also investigates whether Nelson was personally guilty of this betrayal, or whether the orders came from London.
Fascinating Accounts from the Operators of an English Electric Classic
A jet-powered medium bomber, the Canberra was developed by English Electric in response to a 1944 Air Ministry request for a successor to the de Havilland Mosquito. This illustrated book tells its story, using anecdotes from the many pilots and operators who participated in its first test flights and in missions such as the Suez campaign, the Indonesian Confrontation and early British nuclear tests. Slightly off-mint.
Fact Files - 4 Books
Each of the titles in Pen and Sword's Fact File series gives an overview of a class of military equipment. Every model or variation is given a separate entry containing a brief history, technical data table, illustrations and photographs, often of it in use. The four titles included in this set are: German Half-Tracks and Wheeled Vehicles (Read more...) German Artillery (Read more...) Panzers of the Wehrmacht (Read more...) German Heavy Artillery Guns (Read more...)
The Peter The Great Humbled
The Russo-Ottoman War of 1711
Fresh from victory over Sweden, Peter the Great took on the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, only to be defeated. This book examines the causes of the conflict, and the size, composition and tactics of the armies. Their uniforms are illustrated in specially commissioned artwork.
The British Army in Egypt 1801
An Underrated Army Comes of Age
When Britain found itself at war with revolutionary France in 1793, its army was chronically underfunded, undermanned and poorly disciplined. This study analyses the recruitment, training and organization instituted by Sir Ralph Abercromby, which turned it into an effective fighting force, and offers a detailed account of its victorious campaign against the French Army of the Orient in Egypt in 1801.
The Siege of Leningrad
The Military History of the Third Reich from Germany Newsreels
Part of the Hitler’s War Machine series tracing the military history of the Third Reich through wartime German newsreels with English translation, this film records the decisive and massively destructive siege of Leningrad, which lasted from September 1941 to the Red Army victory in January 1944.
Heinkel He 111
Combat Operations 1939–1944
The He 111 was a primary Luftwaffe medium bomber in service 1939 to 1944. Using subtitled footage from the weekly Wochenschau newsreels, this DVD shows bomber crews preparing for and carrying out raids on Polish cities during the German invasion, along with footage of the destruction.
Hitler's War Machine
The start of Operation Barbarossa is depicted in this collection of subtitled footage from the Wochenschau newsreels. Starting with Hitler’s repudiation of the Non-Aggression Pact, it shows battle scenes, Jewish ghetto clearances and captured Bolsheviks from Russia’s borders with the Baltic States and Eastern Europe.
100 Years War
The Battle of Crécy was the first major conflict in the 100 Years War. The Battlefield History TV team visit its location, and use source material, reconstructions and demonstrations of medieval military equipment to show how the battle established the effectiveness of the longbow in action.
A Waste of Blood and Treasure
The 1799 Anglo-Russian Invasion of the Netherlands
In 1799 Britain and Russia joined forces – their first such joint venture – to send a 48,000 strong army to liberate the Netherlands from French occupation. This first study for a generation of an important but neglected campaign explains the diplomatic manoeuvring that preceded it, and the political fallout from its failure. Drawing on eyewitness reports from soldiers, sailors and politicians, and supported by six maps, it also offers descriptions of the major battles.
Children in the Second World War
Memories from the Home Front
Drawing on the archives of the Second World War Experience Centre, this collection presents the personal accounts of over 200 people who grew up during wartime. Their testimony reveals a childhood of extremes, from the excitement and terror of living under heavy bombardment to the culture shock and upheaval of evacuation. Arranged by subject, including Air-Raid Shelters, Schools and Entertainment, the recollections of those who survived offer a child’s-eye view of life on the Home Front.
Women at War in the Classical World
Ancient warfare is often assumed to have been the exclusive preserve of men, but Chrystal draws attention to the important roles played by women throughout Greek and Roman military history. He considers female commanders who were directly involved in strategy and tactics, including Cleopatra and Artemisia, as well as the countless thousands of ordinary women who came into contact with the military, as soldiers’ wives, camp followers or as non-combatant victims of war.
In Pursuit of the Essex
A Tale of Heroism and Hubris in the War of 1812
In the 1812 war between Britain and America, USS Essex destroyed a British whaling fleet. The ship’s pursuit by HMS Phoebe, and their deadly confrontation at Valparaiso, are explained here using official reports, newspaper articles, letters and a sailor’s newly discovered memoir.
The History of the Green Howards
Three Hundred Years of Service
The regiment serving under Colonel Charles Howard in 1743 was already more than 50 years old when it attained its distinctive name from the greenish facings of its uniforms. This history charts the Green Howards' engagements in Britain's major conflicts, including the French wars of the 18th century, Crimea and the two world wars, but also gives equal weight to deployments of more recent decades in Suez, Malaya, Northern Ireland and Afghanistan.
A Tourist's Guide to the Campaign by Car, by Bike and on Foot
The six tours in this guide follow the route of Edward III’s victorious English army across northern France from St-Vaast-la-Hougue via Abbeville to the battlefield itself. Illustrated with colour photographs and maps, each tour has information on public transport and local facilities.
British Campaigns in the South Atlantic 1805–1807
Operations in the Cape and River Plate and their Consequences
Overshadowed by the events of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, British military campaigns in the South Atlantic in 1805–7 nevertheless had a profound effect in shaping the destiny of the Cape Colony and Spanish possessions in South America. Describing the capture of Cape Town and the ultimately unsuccessful attacks on Buenos Aires and Montevideo, this analysis also assesses the longer-term repercussions in encouraging independence movements in South America and shaping the population and politics of South Africa.
The Setting of the Rising Sun
Japanese Military Aviation 1877–1945
After importing British and European aircraft and designs in the 1910s and 1920s, the Japanese Army and Navy developed their own aviation capability between the wars. This study traces the development of the industry, culminating in the formidable fighters and bombers of the 1940s.
The Untold Story of Britain's Highest Award for Bravery
The Victoria Cross is the most prestigious British military accolade and is rarely awarded. This investigation into the origins and bestowal of the medal reveals the political issues that have directed the selection of recipients since its inception. Gary Mead reviews the origins of the decoration; tells some of the heroic stories of qualifying candidates; and asks why some other acts of bravery have been inexplicably overlooked and why no women have ever been awarded the VC.
Support for the Fleet
Architecture and Engineering of the Royal Navy's Bases 1700–1914
The culmination of years of painstaking research by Jonathan Coad, the foremost architectural historian of the royal dockyards, this English Heritage volume charts the history of the construction, establishment and evolution of the Royal Navy’s bases – including dockyards, ordnance yards, naval hospitals, barracks and associated buildings – during the periods of expansion after the Napoleonic wars and global dominance during the 19th century.
Conquerors of the Roman Empire
The Vandals, who are best remembered for their sack of Rome in 455 CE, have become synonymous with wanton and barbaric destruction. But who were these people and do they deserve their reputation? MacDowell follows the Vandals’ great migration across Germany, Gaul, Spain and North Africa as they sought a new homeland; he also analyses the evolution of their armies’ tactics and equipment and emphasizes the centrality of Arian Christian beliefs in the tribe’s identity.
A Classic Account of War in the Air in WW1
Adapting to rapidly evolving equipment, changing tactics and a high turnover of pilots, Lee managed to survive in 46 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps, from May 1917 to January 1918, progressing from novice recruit to seasoned flight commander. Through the extensive letters that he wrote to his wife, this volume recounts his combat experiences at Ypres, Messines, Arras and Cambrai, as well as the routines of daily life in the squadron.
Boots on the Ground
Britain and Her Army Since 1945
The British Army has been continuously employed, somewhere in the world, since 1945 – despite diminishing significantly in numbers. In this history of post-war Britain, former Chief of the General Staff Richard Dannatt examines affairs of state through the prism of the army's involvement, from managing the end of empire and the troubles in Northern Ireland to the Cold War, the Middle East and the emerging threats of the 21st century.
The Western Front
Battlefields, Memorials and Cemeteries of the First World War
In 2013, Marcel Belley and Tom Curry drove along the Western Front to photograph some of the war graves and memorials of the First World War. En route the pair recorded images of remnants of barbed wire, munitions and trenches, but their lenses focused mainly on the cemeteries created by the British and British Dominions, France, Belgium, Germany and the United States. The commentary includes discussion of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission’s decision not to repatriate remains.
Reaching for the Sky
One Hundred Defining Moments from the Royal Air Force 1918–2018
Scott Addington uses infographics, fact boxes and photographs to present this concise overview of RAF history, which includes the first military balloon, the design of the roundel insignia, leading aces of the world wars and a list of pilots’ slang. Each entry has played its part in shaping the service, and the selection reflects the innovation, courage and heritage of the world’s first independent air force.
Where Did That Regiment Go?
The Lineage of British Infantry and Cavalry Regiments at a Glance
The first significant reorganization of British Army formations took place in 1881, reducing 110 infantry regiments to 69. Since then several further revisions have taken place as well as new units formed. With notes outlining the engagements and events that shaped the Army's history, this reference work provides lineage charts tracing the evolution of all infantry and cavalry regiments from 1660 to the present.
Loyal to Empire
The Life of General Sir Charles Monro, 1860–1929
Charles Monro commanded divisions in France during the First World War and ordered the evacuation of Gallipoli in 1915 before being appointed Commander in Chief of India. This biography describes his contributions to the Army and the governance of the Empire.
The Military History of China
This history of China’s military conflicts spans from Genghis Khan’s rule to today’s presidency of Xi Jinping, and includes the Sino-French war, the Boxer Rebellion, the occupation of Tibet and the Korean War. Descriptions of each conflict are written as concise short stories.
The Battle of Plassey 1757
The Victory That Won an Empire
When Clive of India and his tiny detachment of army officers and mercenaries defeated the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies in a mango grove near Plassey, he secured all of Bengal and, eventually, the whole of India for the East India Company. Drawing on an extraordinary collection of private papers, this study of the battle and the 13 months of campaigns leading up to it commemorates the men on both sides who fought and died in the conflict.
School of Aces
The RAF Training School that Won the Battle of Britain
RAF Sutton Bridge was the site of an important training centre in the Second World War, turning out nearly 500 Hurricane fighter pilots, many of whom flew in the Battle of Britain. This review of the station's activities reveals the genesis and development of the highly effective training programme and examines the Central Gunnery School, which was established in 1942 to instruct air gunners from Bomber Command, as well as fighter pilots.
The Darkest Days
The Truth Behind Britain's Rush to War, 1914
Contrary to recent historical consensus, which argues that Britain’s entry into the First World War was unavoidable, this well-researched, forensic examination of political events in Britain during the 13 days leading up to outbreak, reveals that key politicians and organizations, including cabinet members, Keir Hardie and Liberal Party ‘Radicals’, offered a path to neutrality, and proposes that political blunders and misguided allegiances to France and Russia resulted in a catastrophic conflict that was far from inevitable.
Rome and the Sword
How Warriors and Weapons Shaped Roman History
Simon James takes an archaeologist’s approach to the study of Rome’s military history, telling the story of the sword – ‘the literal cutting edge of Roman power’ – from early times to the fall of the western empire. To supplement the battle narratives of ancient historical writers, he explains developments in sword-smithing techniques and military ideology, considers cultural reasons for changes in hardware and tactics and helps the reader to visualize the direct human experience of the ‘myriad individual acts of mayhem’ in battle.
A Turning Point of the American War in Vietnam
The city of Hue was of major strategic importance to the US Army in Vietnam, but the January 1968 offensive against the city by the North Vietnamese Army led, as the Black Hawk Down author Mark Bowden shows, to the war’s costliest campaign. Slightly off-mint.
The Triumph of Robert the Bruce
In a fresh account of Bannockburn, Cornell places the battle ‘within its wider context as a phenomenon inextricably linked to the political events within Scotland and England in this period’. He examines the internal conflicts in both countries, the leadership of Robert Bruce and that of England’s Edward II and his generals in a thorough reappraisal of why the battle occurred, how it unfolded and how the Scots achieved their extraordinary against-the-odds victory.
The First Battle of the Cold War
At the end of the Second World War, as Germany lay in ruins, the Western Allies looked with alarm towards a new adversary in the east: Stalin’s Russia. The Italian port of Trieste, occupied by Yugoslav troops, was a flashpoint. Like a Cold War thriller, this history charts the destinies of a British SOE officer, an Austrian SS general, an American spy and a teenage Italian female partisan in a true story of espionage, escape and revenge.
John Sadler describes the decisive military engagements within Scottish borders that have been most significant in their scale or consequences, from Mons Graupius (84 CE), which marked the Romans’ most northward advance, to the Jacobite defeat at Culloden in 1746. He discusses the battles’ historical contexts and the development of equipment and fighting styles, as well as using detailed battle plans for tactical analyses. New edition.
A Much Recorded War
The Russo-Japanese War in History and Imagery
Intense international interest in the Russo-Japanese dispute over Chinese territory in 1904–5 meant that the war was extensively covered by journalists and many images were produced for combatant and foreign nations. Examining the origins and history of the conflict, this exhibition catalogue presents 80 items, including woodblock prints, lithographs, watercolours, photographs and postcards, that demonstrate how imagery depicting the war developed in Japanese art during the period.
The History of the SAS, Britain's Secret Special Forces Unit that Sabotaged the Nazis and Changed the Nature of War
Facing the well-equipped German forces in North Africa in 1941, David Stirling saw the potential for small teams of highly trained soldiers to mount surprise attacks and acts of sabotage on airfields and supply chains. This account of his founding of the SAS describes their actions in Africa, Sicily, Italy and France and puts into context their vital strategic effectiveness during the Second World War and lasting influence on military tactics thereafter. Off-mint and felt-tip mark on lower trimmed edge.
The Lower Deck of The Royal Navy Since 1939 To The Present Day
The Royal Navy was the largest in the world in 1939, and conscription during the Second World War increased the total of employed men to 790,000, the vast majority of whom were seamen of the 'lower deck'. Based on primary research and first-hand accounts, this book examines the lives of these sailors during a period that has seen the introduction of women, the end of hammocks and the rum ration, and ever more emphasis on technical skills.
The Lower Deck of the Royal Navy, 1850–1939
The change from sail to steam in the Royal Navy was underway by 1850 and in the following decades the work and life of ordinary seamen changed radically as new jobs, servicing the engines and operating the sophisticated gunnery and communications systems, replaced the traditional lot of the sailor. This well-researched history chronicles the increasing professionalization and specialization of the lower deck as the Navy rapidly evolved and introduced many of the roles and practices which are familiar today.
Two Deaths at Amphipolis
Cleon vs Brasidas in the Peloponnesian War
Mike Roberts brings a fresh perspective to the study of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE) by focusing on the clash of the two dynamic commanders who were killed in 422 during the battle over the Athenian colony at Amphipolis. Roberts follows the career of the heroic Spartan Brasidas, already a veteran of many campaigns when he headed north to this strategically important city, and reconsiders the Athenian Cleon, whose reputation was tarnished by the historian Thucydides’ vociferous criticism.
The Business of War
Medieval mercenaries were more than just well-armed, freebooting thugs; they were also noblemen, who took advantage of political chaos to further their own interests. From early Italian mercenaries to the private armies spawned during the Hundred Years War, this survey of Europe’s freelance fighters describes the many mercenary bands who killed, looted and ransomed their way across Europe’s heartlands, referencing the popular literature, including Machiavelli, Shakespeare, Conan Doyle and Mark Twain, that has guaranteed their place in the collective imagination.
Genghis Khan and the Mongol War Machine
In uniting the tribes of northeast Asia, Genghis Khan led an army whose ingenious and often brutal stratagems created a land-based empire stretching from the Black Sea in the west to Korea in the east. This study reassesses his achievements in the context of Mongol society, referring to sources including the 13th-century History of the World Conqueror and Secret History of the Mongols, and asking whether his legacy was the result of military genius, banditry, or fortuitous circumstance.
British Intelligence and The Occult in the Second World War
Astrology, magic, political warfare and black propaganda, Commander Ian Fleming’s meeting with the ‘Beast’ Aleister Crowley... Nicholas Booth tells a surreal tale that begins with British Intelligence wanting to know whether Adolf Hitler was being advised by astrologers and ends with Rudolf Hess parachuting into Scotland. Using declassified files, Booth explains some of the peculiar events and personalities of the secret war in 1941, when Britain’s situation was desperate and even an occult straw seemed worth clutching.
The New Army to the Somme
Lord Kitchener recognized the need for recruitment on an unprecedented scale in 1914 and his call for 'the First Hundred Thousand' was quickly met by enthusiastic volunteers. Local regiments were then created, encouraging brothers, friends and workmates to join up in companionable 'pals' battalions, but eventually the government was forced to introduce conscription. This study of these early volunteer soldiers, dubbed by the original regulars of 1914 as Kitchener's Mob, includes illustrations of recruitment literature, archive photographs and military memorabilia.
A Century of Counterinsurgency
During the 20th century, guerrilla warfare and responding counter-insurgency initiatives gradually took over from traditional set-piece battles as the dominant form of military operations. This study examines the experiences of major nations in dealing with the increasing threat of insurgency, from the actions of Germany, Russia, France and Britain when dealing with insurrection in their colonial outposts to the recent Western campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rome Seizes the Trident
The Defeat of Carthaginian Seapower and the Forging of the Roman Empire
In 264 BCE, when the Romans first went to war with Carthage, they had no navy, relying instead on ships from South Italian cities. However, when the Punic Wars ended more than a century later, Rome had developed a powerful fleet, which would prove vital for imperial expansion. DeSantis traces the growth of this naval supremacy and discusses the tactics that made it possible, such as the boarding-bridge by which the superior Roman infantry simply walked onto the enemy’s decks.
The Battle of Actium 31 BC
War for the World
The naval battle at Actium, when the future emperor Augustus defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra, was perhaps the most significant military engagement in Roman history. Yet many details of exactly what happened on that September day continue to elude scholars. This study of the literary and historical sources offers a fresh examination of the evidence, with close analysis of hitherto unconsidered allusions to Actium in the description of an equestrian engagement in Book Eleven of Virgil’s Aeneid.